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QuestionAnswer
phylogeny hypothesis of how taxa are evolutionarily related to each other
Systematics Looks at evolution of taxa (phylogeny) and taxonomy (naming of species)
Node shared common ancestor
Sister taxa 2 taxa that share a common ancestor
Lungfish can estivate (live in ponds and then bury when it dries up)
Monocots one cotyledon (eg grasses, orchids, palms, lilies) o like a grass, just straight
Dicots two cotyledon (eg beans, roses, dasies, oaks, maples) o like a branchy maple leaf
Cotyledon a nutrient storage thing for embryos
are monocots and dicots evolutionary groups? • An angiosperm has a seed that’s buried in some sort of tissue • In gymnosperms the seed is naked & no flowers
How to collect data to create a phylogeny Collect data (morph or genetic). Data must be homologous. Data must vary (have different character states, like have it or not)
Homology vs analogy -homology – similar due to shared ancestry -analogy – similarity not due to shared ancestry, due to coevolutionary processes
synapomorphy a shared derived trait (that is homologous) • character states vary from outgroup, and vary across the tree but also have shared ancestry
homoplasy shared traits and character states, but not through shared ancestry • convergent evolution • reversals in character states (loss of characters and states) o short and long interspersed nucleotide elements can overcome this
parsimony the smallest number of states changes needed to generate tree
character states like # of legs, do you have hair or not, etc
Polytomy breaks it into 3+
Character any characteristic to be studied
Ancestral trait same as in the ancestor
Derived trait similar to ancestral, but changed up a bit via mutation, selection, etc.
Ancestral vs derived If you’re comparing current mammals to ancient mammal-like reptiles, fur and lactation are derived, but if we’re comparing whales and humans those characters are ancestral.
Homology similarity in organisms due to a shared ancestor
Monophyletic group includes ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor
Synapomorphy shared, derived trait is found in 2 or more taxa that is present in most recent common ancestor but missing in more ancient ancestors
Homoplasy trait that is shared due to reasons other than ancestry. So like flamingos and pigs are both pink but it’s not because they shared a common ancestor that was also pink.
Polyphyletic group an unnatural group that does not include the most recent common ancestor
Paraphyletic group a group that includes an ancestor and some of its descendants but not all
Convergent evolution when evolution arrives at the same conclusion for what’s best. Like even though a shark and a dolphin haven’t shared a common ancestor in a long time, they both ended up in a similar shape because that’s what works best for their environment.
Distinguishing between homoplasy and homology • Homology – genes occur in similar sequence. Like same order, same chromosome • Homology - homeobox base pair sequence • Homology – found in interverning lineages
Steps to supporting a claim about phylogeny • Phylogeny based on morphological traits • Phylogeny based on dna sequence data • Transmutable diseases…? SINES?
Created by: haleyBUGoxox