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Unit 02-Biochemistry

The form that carbohydrates take in animals: glycogen
This has 2 or more different elements. compound
The term for when there is an attraction between different substances adhesion
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids: nucleotides
Lipids are what type of polarity? nonpolar
List the 5 things that can affect enzyme activity? temp, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, competitive inhibition
What is the general term for the things that are needed to create a chemical reaction. reactants
When there is an unequal distribution of charges, the substance is: Polar
This makes more hydroxide ions when mixed with water. Bases
Give an example of our main energy molecule that is a special type of a nucleotide: ATP
What is the term for when a protein unravels and loses its 3D shape and therefore can’t work. Denaturation
These macromolecules consist of sugars and starches. Carbohydrates
These type of compounds do not have carbon, but have covalent and ionic bonds. inorganic molecules
What is the general term for the things that a chemical reaction creates. products
The form that carbohydrates take in plants: starch and cellulose
What is the term for a protein that catalyzes a chemical reaction? enzyme
A type of formula that shows the elements, number of atoms, arrangement, and bonds. Structural formula
The smallest unit of matter: atom
The building blocks of proteins are: amino acids
What is the term for the pocket on an enzyme that a substrate binds to? active site
Type of bond that steals or gives away an electron Ionic bond
Describe the building blocks of a phospholipid: glycerol, phosphate group, and 2 fatty acids
Term for the substance that is dissolved: solute
What is the term for the amount of energy that is needed to start a chemical reaction. Activation energy
What is the term for when smaller molecules combine to make a bigger molecule and removes water dehydration synthesis
Type of bond that is in water, is weak, is covalent, but not sharing equally. Hydrogen bonds
Ice has more ________ hydrogen bonds than water because they are spaced out more. stable
List the parts of the atom and their charges: electron (-), proton (+), neutron
The bond between amino acids to make a protein are called? peptide bonds
Describe the 3 steps of the catalytic cycle (enzyme action) substrate bind, activation energy lowered, enzyme changes shape, products made, products released, active site empty
These have a pH of 8-14. Bases
What are the 3 properties of water: absorbs/stores heat efficiently Bonds to itself and other things Can dissolve substances
What are the 2 primary examples of nucleic acids? DNA and RNA
What is the term for then a non-substrate molecule binds to the active site, not letting the correct substrate bind competitive inhibition
The building block (monomer) of carbohydrates are: monosaccharides
These type of compounds have carbon and covalent bonds. Organic molecules
An example in nature of adhesion: transpiration
This is pH of 7 pure water (distilled water)
This only has one type of atom. element
Describe characteristics of saturated fats: straight, no double bonds, solid at room temp
These have a pH of 0-6. Acids
What are the two characteristics that make water so important to cells? most biochemical processes occur in water the polarity makes things dissolve to transporting in/out of cell is easier
List the 3 purposes of lipids: cell membrane structure, long-term energy, insulation
The term for when there is an attraction between the same kind of molecules cohesion
What is the term for all the chemical reactions that occur within an organism. metabolism
The term for things that can react with acids and bases to keep pH with a certain range. Buffers
When a phosphate breaks off ATP is it storing energy or releasing energy? releasing energy
This characteristic of water makes it dissolve other things easily: polarity
this has 2 or more atoms, by covalent bonds. molecule
What are the 4 forms of energy: light, chemical, mechanical, electrical
Describe characteristics of unsaturated fats: crooked, double bonds, liquid at room temp
The purpose of carbohydrates. Quick energy
This makes more hydrogen ions when mixed with water. Acids
What are the 3 purposes of proteins: structural, enzymes, specialized like antibodies and hemoglobin
What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? a sugar, a phosphate group, a base
Type of bond that shares electrons. Covalent bonds
A type of formula that only shows the number and type of element. Chemical or Molecular formula
Term for liquid that a substance is dissolved in: solvent
What is the term for when bigger molecules break down into smaller molecules in the presence of water hydrolysis
The building blocks of basic lipids are: glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What does a catalyst do? Speed up a reaction
An atom that has gained or lost an electron is called an: Ion
Water is _________: Polar
An example of cohesion is called _________ surface tension
What is the term for a substance that binds to an active site? substrate
Proteins have what type of shape? unique 3-D shape
What is the process name for making carbohydrates dehydration synthesis
Created by: thompsondk