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Speech Science

07 Physiological Acoustics- Classifying Speech Sounds & Voice Onset Time

Speech sounds classified by The source (where in the speech sound mechanism does the sound originate) and nature (what kind of sound are we talking about) of the sound(s) produced
Two Sound Sources for Speech 1)Larynx 2)Oral Cavity
Larynx speech source “Laryngeal Buzz” Periodic complex tone produced by vocal fold vibration (has harmonic and tonal characteristics)
Sounds with Larynx source all vowels, dipthongs + m, n, ing, w, j, r, l
Oral Cavity speech source Aperiodic noise produced by pressure changes (location where sound originates, not the modification)
2 types of sounds produced in the oral cavity 1)Transient Plosive burst 2)Friction-like continuous noise
Transient Plosive burst Build up pressure and release an artiulator, causing a sudden pressure drop which produces a sound called the plosive burst. p, t, k
Friction-like continuous noise Occurs when you force air through a narrow orifice and creates friction like sounds. th, s, sh, f , h
What oriface shape is more efficient at creating a more powerful sound? Circular orifaces are more efficient at generating tyrbulence than flat orifaces (why /s/ and /sh/ are more powerful than /f/ and /th/)
Affricate A stop exploded into a fricative which is released into a narrow orifice (ch,dz)
Result of A plosive burst being superimposed upon a laryngeal buzz b,d,g
Result of A continuous friction-like noise can be superimposed upon a laryngeal buzz thz,v,z,jz
Result of A plosive burst, exploded into a narrow orifice, can be superimposed upon a laryngeal buzz dz
Sonorants The group of phonemes whose sole sound source is vocal fold vibration (larynx). All have harmonic structure -all vowels plus er -dipthongs -nasals -glides/liquids
Obstruents The group of phonemes that are characterized by aperiodic noises produced within the oral cavitity. -All stops -all fricatives -all affricates
Speech power of vowels Vowels more intense than consonants. -The strongest consonants doesn't have the power of the weakest vowel.
Consonants carry carry the largest amount of linguistic info
Duration of the average syllable 180ms
Duration of The average vowel 120ms
vowel duration and power Vowels loudest and longest but don’t carry as much linguist info.
Duration of A vowel before a voiceless consonant 100 ms
Duration of A vowel before a voiced consonant 140ms
Phonation percentage during speech 76%
Percentage of speech for vowels and consonants 1)36% = production of vowels 2)40% = production of voiced consonants 3) Remaining 24% (not phonating) = pauses or voiceless consonants
Duration of avg vowel 120ms
Duration of avg consonants 60ms
Duration of a stressed vowel compared to an unstressed vowel -The duration of a stressed vowel = 75% longer than an unstressed vowel -Stressed vowels = also 3 to 4 times more powerful than unstressed vowels
Duration of Consonants before stressed vowels = longer than consonants before unstressed vowels
What is the most powerful sound? /)/ aka aw
What are the weakest soundsT? /f,v,th/ account for over 50% of sound discrimination errors
The intensity of a speech sound related to tongue height -The intensity of a speech sound = inversely related to tongue height -The higher the tongue the smaller the opening -Higher the tongue lower/weaker the sound.
What is The average difference between the strongest sound, /)/ and the weakest sound /th/? about 28db
If a speaker moves 10 ft away sound is attenuated -By more than 40db -Under such conditions, /th/ is barely audible
Difference between voice and voiceless consonants when voicing begins
VOT voice onset time
VTT voice termination time
3 Types of Stops .Aspirated voiceless stops .Unaspirated voiceless stops .Voiced stops
Aspirated voiceless stops In English, all voiceless stops that precede stressed vowels
Unaspirated voiceless stops all voiceless stops that occur in consonant clusters or precede unstressed vowels
Aspiration delays voice onset time
When does voicing begin in a voiced consonant? voicing begins prior to the release of the plosive burst. -difference between /b/ and /p/
Voice Onset Time is measured in ms from the plosive release to the beginning of phonation
VOT=0 when a voiceless plosive occurs in a cluster (i.e. sp)
Delay in VOT occurs after a voiceless consonant
- VOT Occur during voiced consonants
Avg VOT for voiceless, aspirated stops 35 to 135 ms
Avg VOT for voiceless, unaspirated stops (whether in a n unstressed syllable or a consonant cluster) VOT = 0 to 50 ms
Avg VOT for voiced stops VOT= -35 to -195 ms
Created by: aramos139



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