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Cell Struct/Function

Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

prokaryotes and eukaryotes 1) primarily bacteria which are simple cells (no nucleus) 2) organisms with complex cells and membrane-bound organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.) [B]
cell size cells, the basic unit life, are small in order to have a high surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) [B]
cell specialization cells in multicellular organisms develop to have separate tasks (muscle cells, red blood cells, etc.) [B]
cell membrane selectively permeable separation of the internal and external environment of the cell [B]
mitochondria and chloroplast 1) organelle that breaks down sugar (glucose) to release ATP energy (cellular respiration) 2) organelle that absorbs light energy to build sugar (photosynthesis) (both only in eukaryotes) [B]
rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and golgi complex 1) a ribosome covered site of protein production and transport 2) modifies/packages proteins and further transport (both only in eukaryotes) [B]
nucleus membrane bound organelle which contains DNA, the blueprint for proteins (only in eukaryotes) [B]
ribosomes organelle that is the site of protein production (found in all living organisms) [B]
lysosomes membrane bound organelle that digest and dispose of cell waste (only in eukaryotes) [B]
vacuole membrane bound organelle with functions that include release of waste products and storage (only in eukaryotes) [B]
cell wall found surrounding many cells (except animal) provide protection and structure [B]
osmosis diffusion (energy free movement from high concentration to low concentration) of water across a membrane [B]
surface area increased membrane folds to allow for increased exchange of materials and energy with the environment (ex: root hairs, alveoli, villi) [BB]
cristae and matrix 1) inner convoluted membrane of the mitochondria 2) inner space of the mitochondria [BB]
thylakoid membrane and stroma 1) coin-shaped membrane bound structures organized into stacks called grana found in chloroplasts 2) inner space of the chloroplasts [BB]
hydrophobic and hydrophilic 1) having an aversion to water 2) having an affinity for water [BB]
endocytosis and exocytosis The cellular uptake or secretion of substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle [BB]
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in most cases, synthesizes lipids
phospholipid the main component of the cell membrane made up of a hydrophilic phosphate portion and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails (found in a bilayer) [BB]
chlorophyll pigments found in chloroplasts that are the key light-trapping molecules in photosynthesis [BB]
embedded proteins proteins that are integrated into a cell membrane (including protein channels and carrier proteins) [BB]
hypertonic A solution with a greater solute concentration than another (in osmosis, net movement of water is greater into this solution) [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
hypotonic A solution with a lesser solute concentration than another (in osmosis, net movement of water is greater out of this solution) [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
isotonic A solution with an equal solute concentration compared to another (in osmosis, there is no net change in the amount of water) [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
diffusion spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
facilitated diffusion spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
passive transport The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane (without the use of energy) [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
active transport movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient, with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
plasmolysis A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment [Lab: Diffusion/Osmosis]
Na+/K+ pump (sodium-potassium pump) an example of active transport (two-way 3:2 transport) works to maintain membrane potential in a nerve cell [BB]
transpiration evaporative loss of water from a plant (water moves from roots to leaves and evaporates at the stomata) [Lab: Transpiration]
stomata microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows the intake of carbon dioxide and the loss of oxygen and water [Lab: Transpiration]
guard cells specialized epidermal plant cells surrounding the stomata which can close to limit water loss [Lab: Transpiration]
negative pressure a tension that causes water to be pulled upwards through an open system (plant xylem) [Lab: Transpiration]
water potential physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure (higher water potential = water will leave area) [Lab: Transpiration]
leaf surface area can be determined by tracing a leaf on graph paper and can be used to compare the transpiration rate of different size leaves [Lab: Transpiration]
xylem tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water from the roots to the rest of the plant [Lab: Transpiration]
transpiration rate (type of environment) the rate is high in sunny/windy environments and low in humid environments [Lab: Transpiration]
Created by: cfigueiredo
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