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Public Heath test 1

Public Health Test 1

QuestionAnswer
what is health? health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and is not merely the absence of disease of infirmity
what is public health? the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts
what are the roles of the dental hygienist described by the american dental hygienist association? advocate, education, clinician researcher and administrator/manager
what are the core functions of public health agencies? assessment, policy development, assurance
what is the assessment phase of the core functions of public health? public health agencies regularly and systematically collects, assembles analyzes and makes available information on the health of the community
what is policy development in the core functions of public health? public health agencies exercise its responsibility to serve the public interest in development of comprehensive public health policies by promoting the use of scientific knowledge base in decision making
what is assurance in the core functions of public health assure their constituents that services necessary to achieve agreed upon goals are provided by encouraging actions by other entities
what defines a public health problem? condition that is widespread actual or potential case for morbidity or mortality perception on the part of the public, government or public health authorities that the condition is a public health problem
state dental public health units originally developed as a result of the maternal and child health grants to states
the controlled clinical trails of water fluoridation began in 1945
the primary reason for developing NIDR was to... address the national dental problems discovered through selective services rejections
what is primary prevention? employment of strategies and agents to forestall the onset of disease reverse its progress, or arrest its process before treatment becomes necessary (dental hygiene)
what is secondary prevention? employs routine treatment methods to terminate the disease process and or restore tissues to as nearly normal as possible, can also be called restorative care (fluoride)
what is a tertiary prevention? employs straties to replace lost tissues through rehabilitation
what is the main health care research institution in the United States national institutes of health
what is dental public health the art and science elf preventing and controlling dental disease and promoting dental health through organized community efforts serves the community as the patient rather than the individual
what is the difference between public health and community health? public refers to a general collection of people without regards to a specific geographic area community is more defined as a group living in a specified geographic area that is one of a limited size
what are the six categories of public health? epidemiology, statistics, biomedical science, environmental health science, social and behavioral science, health policy
how do we achieve the core functions of public health? planning, implementation, evaluation
when defining a public health problem, what two criteria must it meet? must be widespread cause of morbidity and mortality public, government or public health authorities need to see it as a problem
what is done in private practice? patient, exam, diagnosis, treatment planning, fee/payment, patient evaluation
what is done in public health dental practice? community, surgery, analysis, program planning, budget/financing, program evaluation
what is healthy people? a national agenda that communicates a vision for improving health and achieving health equality measurable objectives with targets
what are the inter nation government levels in public health? World Health Organization which develops programs for underdeveloped nations and fathers data for comparison across nations
what are the federal government levels in public health? department of health and human services operating divisions IHS: indian health services NIH: National institutes for health FDA: food and drug administration CDC: centers for disease control and prevention
who publishes health people? Department of health and human services
what are the state government levels in public health state prisions, maternal and child health, women infant children (WIC), head start programs, tribal clinics or schools for low income, special needs or elderly
what is the primary purpose of department of health and human services? primary department of the federal government that oversees public health activities at the national level
what is lacking in medicare? does not cover dental care
what is perceived need? felt need that is determined by the client or public
what is normative need? what we think our patient would benefit from or what we want to give our patient
what is demand? the particular frequency or desired frequency of dental care from a population
what is effective demand? desire for care and ability to obtain it
what is potential demand? desire for care and inability to obtain care
what is supply? quantity of dental care services available
what is utilization? proportion of the population that uses dental services over a period of time, actually consumed not just desired
what is attitude? pattern of mental views that are established because of prior experiences
how many states allow direct access to dental hygiene practitioners and services? 35
how many states currently regonize and directly reimburse dental hygienists as medicaid providers? 15
what organization proposed the dental health aide therapist? USPHS
what are the responsibilities of the dental health aide therapist? may only practice in Alaska, no degree is required, focused on providing restorative care in patients in remote areas under the supervision of a DDS
what organization proposed the community dental health coordinator? American dental association
what are the responsibilities of the community dental health coordinator? no degree or state license required, must be supervised by a dentist at all times, perform oral hygiene instructions and coronal polishing
what organization proposed the advanced dental hygiene practitioner? american dental hygienist association
what are the responsibilities of the advanced dental hygiene practitioner? masters degré curriculum required, focus on prevention and primary restorative
what is an endemic? constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area, it can refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease within an area
what is an epidemic? unusually high occurrence of disease or the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness clearly in excess of normal expectancy
what is a pandemic disease or infection occurring worldwide or over a very wide area
what is a count the number of people in a gout who have a particular disease or characteristic
how do you measure proportion count divided by the total number in the group
what is morbidity? rates of disease
what is incidence? rate of development of a disease in a group over time rate at which new disease cases occur in a population during a specified period
what is prevalence? describes a group at a certain time, snapshot od an existing condition or a measure of disease status proportion of people who have a disease
when do you use descriptive studies? undertaken when little is known of the epidemiology of the disease tell you who is affected, where cases occur and when cases occur
when do you use analytic studies? carried out when leads about etiology are already available tell you why disease rates are high in a particular group
what does a descriptive study look at? prevalence of disease by person, gender, race ethnicity, socioeconomic status, place and time
what is a cross sectional study? disease status and exposure to risk factors are measured at one point in time
what is a cohort? any group of individuals who are followed or traced over time
what is sensitivity? proportion of those who truly have the disease
what is specificity? proportion of those who truly do not have the disease that are correctly classified as not having it
what term describes the number of new diseases cases that have occurred during a specific period? incidence
what is the agent? biologic or mechanical cause of a disease or condition
what is the host? individual's genetic or social factors that contribute t a person's susceptibility or resistance
what is environment? physical, social sociocultural sociopolitical and economic circumstance required for the disease to thrive, survive and spread
what is a risk factor? modifiable attribute or exposure known to be associated with a health condition, confirmed by longitudinal studies
what are the three criteria that must be met in order to establish a risk factor? exposure must precede the onset of disease or health condition exposure must covary with the frequency of the disease or health condition observed association must not be due to bias or error in sample selection
what is a risk indicator? modifiable attribute that has been shown to be associated with a disease in cross sectional and or case control studies
what is a risk marker? attribute that is associated with the increased probability o disease but is not considered to have a causal role in its development, established by conducting cross sectional and case control studies
what is the purpose of an efficacy trail? test whether an agent or treatment regimen works tested on a population susceptible to the disease or condition and his highly controlled
what is the purpose of an effectiveness trail? test the way an agent or treatment regimen works in everyday conditions after its efficacy has been established
what is validity? accuracy of a study
the higher the index score... the more disease will be present
what is reliability? ability of an index to consistently measure the same level of disease at different times by wither the same or different examiners under various conditions
what is inter examiner reliability? two different examiners should be able to obtain the same score for the same person being examined
what is intraexaminer reliability one examiner should be able to obtain the same score if the same person is examined twice
what does DMFT measure? decayed, missing, and filled teeth
what does DMFS measure? decayed missing and filled surfaces, number of surfaces with a history of caries
what is the root caries index? measure of root caries that includes the number of exposed root surfaces as the denominator adding the number of decayed and filled root surfaces and then dividing this number by the number of root surfaces with gingival recession
what does the community periodontal index look at gingival bleeding, calculus and periodontal pockets does not evaluate clinical attachment loss
Created by: Chobchi