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Tobira Ch4 文法

QuestionAnswer
毎~のように almost every ~
毎~のように, 文型 毎 + X のように (X = time word):{週/月/年/回}
Sentence と{考えられ散る/思われている} Introduce a generally-accepted opinion regarding some matter. Note that these denote the speaker's/writer's opinion.
Sentence と{考えられ散る/思われている}, choosing between the two 考えられている Indicates an opinion arrvied at through logic. 思われている usually indicates an opinion derived from intution.
Sentence と{考えられ散る/思われている}, 英訳 It is considered that ~; It is believed that ~
まず An adverb which means "first of all"
まず, 英訳 first of all; first; to begin with; before everything"
Verb-non-past ように States either a purpose or the way in which something is to be done. In XようにY, X represents a state or event which is beyond the control of the subject of Y.
Verb-non-past ように, note The verb form before ように is often a potential form or a negative form.
Verb-non-past ように, comparable construction and differences XためにY, except X is an action which can be controlled by the subject of Y, while XようにY implies that a certain consequence X will arise as a result of an action Y.
Verb-non-past ように, comparable construction and differences, exception-like elaboration When subject of the main clause differs from the subordinate clause (the first clause), both can be used because the person in the second clause does not have control over the person in the first. (I don't get this. People can control others a bit.)
Verb-non-past ように, 英訳 so that ~; in such a way that ~
Sentence {の/ん} {ではないだろうか/ではないでしょうか/じゃいないかな} Express an opinion in an indecisive fashion. No negative meaning despite the form.
Sentence {の/ん} {ではないだろうか/ではないでしょうか/じゃいないかな}, usage notes のではない{だろう/でしょう}か are only used in written language. のではないだろうか is the more formal form. んではないでしょうか/んじゃいないかな are only used in spoken language. んじゃいないかな is more casual
Sentence {の/ん} {ではないだろうか/ではないでしょうか/じゃいないかな}, 英訳 I think that ~ ; Isn't it that ~ ?
Sentence {の/ん} {ではないだろうか/ではないでしょうか/じゃいないかな}, 文型 Type 2a
~ず(に) ずに is the same as ないで when ないで means "without doing something" or "instead of doing something."
~ず(に), spelling note sometimes に is omitted
~ず(に), formation replace ない of negative short form with ずに
~ず(に), formation (行く and 食べる examples) 行かずに and 食べずに. する is an exception: せずに.
Sentence といえる{だろう/でしょう} Used when the speaker is quite certain that his/her statement is correct but wants to soften the statement so as not to appear too assertive. This is a formal expression.
Sentence といえる{だろう/でしょう}, 英訳 It can probably be said that ~ ; It is probably all right to say that ~
Sentence といえる{だろう/でしょう}, 文型 S-plain と言えるだろう
~ん{だけど/ですが} Preliminary remark by the speaker to inform the hearer of the speaker's desire, the current situation, etc. before (a) asking a question related to that destire/situation, (b) asking for an opinion or for advice, or (c) making a request.
~ん{だけど/ですが}, fourth use This phrase can also be used to extend an invitation or an offer.
~ん{だけど/ですが}, usage notes When making a request, the request is often unstated, as shown below.
~ん{だけど/ですが}, formality んだけど is more casual than んですが
~ん{だけど/ですが}, 文型 Type 2a
それで Sentence-initial conjunction preceding a fact, conclusion, decision, etc.
それで, 文型 S1。それで、S2。Sentence 1 is the cause/reason for the information stated in Sentence 2.
それで, 英訳 because of that; so; that's why; for that reason
それで, usage notes cannot be used when sentence 2 is the speaker's judgment, request, or command. だから should be used in that case. だから can also be used in the situations where それで can be used.
Question Word ~ても Means "no matter" or "without regard to"
Question Word ~ても, 英訳 no matter what/who/when/where/how
Question Word ~ても, 文型 a. QW (Prt) + {V/A} - te も, b. QW (Prt) + {ANa/N} + でも
~うちに, part 1 of 2 (both necessary) (ない)うちに is used when someone does something before a situation or state changes. 間に is similar but cannot be used with negative forms of verbs.
~うちに, part 2 of 2 (both necessary) Also, うちに always implies that it is not possible, easy, or a good idea to do something after the time specified in the うちに clause. 間に is not always this way.
うちに, 英訳 while ~ still ~ないうちに=before (something happens)
うちに, 文型 a. V-plain.nonpast うちに, b. A-plain.nonpastうちに, c. ANaなうちに, Nのうちに (noun cannot be an event or action noun, usch as 試合, 試験, 勉強, and 買い物
できれば; できたら ”If possible.' Also used when the speaker asks a favor of someone in a less direct way.
できれば; できたら, formality できれば is slightly more formal than できたら
できれば; できたら, 英訳 if possible; if you don't mind; if it's all right
~たばかり V-plain.past ばかり indicates that someone has just done something or something has just happened. The noun-modification form is ばかりの
~たばかり, 英訳 have just V-ed
~たばかり, 文型 a. V-plain.past ばかりだ, b. V-plain.pastばかりのNoun
Created by: ncommons