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general meteorology

order of layers of air in atmosphere and their temp trends troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere, exosphere: inversions are in S and TH
height of tropopause variable, tends to be lower over tropical regions and higher over arctic regions
top three permanent gases in atmosphere oxygen (78), nitrogen (21), and Argon (.93)
top two variable gases in atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane (also ozone, if you count it)
greenhouse effect heat from the sun is reflected back out to space and some of it gets trapped by GH gases, keeping heat in and causing earth to warm
temperature conversions c = 5/9(F-32), K = c+273.15
latent heat..when consumed and released energy in form of heat, consumed(solid to liquid) or released (liquid to solid) by a phase change.
how modes of heat transfer are relevent to atmospheric processes radiation from sun(most important), convection drives weather, conduction only relevent in first few cm of surface where earth gives off heat
advection v convection advection is a horizontal transfer of air and convection is air circulating in a cell with heat rising and cool air falling
where do sun and earth emission spectra peak in the electromagnetic spectrum both in visible light, sun at one half micrometer and earth at 10 micrometers
why is there less cooling on cloudy nights because clouds tends to hold the heat from the day in like a lid on a jar
diurnal (daily) temp cycle driven by earth's rotation, energy gains from the sun and losses from earth's emission. loss exceeds gain by 4pm when max temp is reached.
three processes where water absorbs energy sublimation (ice to vapor), evaporation and melting
factors that control both diurnal and annual temp cycles (they are the same) latitude(intensity and number of hours of sun), surface type(vegies block heat, etc, elevation and aspect(angle sun's rays strike surfaces)(both higher elevation and aspect cause larger temp variations), large bodies of water(cause smaller ranges, less ex
three processes by which water releases energy condensation, freezing, and deposition (air to ice)
relative humidity v dew point RH - actual from molecules of vapor v the saturation vapor pressure..tells just how close air is to saturation. Dew point is the temp that air must be cooled to become saturated (without changed pressure)
RH is temp independent and dew point is temp dependent. T or F FALSE it's the other way around.
saturation occurs when the rate at which the number of molecules evaporating exactly equals the number condensing
list the 5 types of fog radiation, advection(mixing), evaporation(steam fog), upslope fog, valley fog
radiation fog when radiative cooling lowers temp in near surface air to dew point, forms at surface and thickens on up, happens on cool clear nights, heat rises from land cooling the bottom of air til it reaches saturation
advection fog warm moist air is cooled moving over a cool surface, ex is coasts
evaporation fog cold air mixes with warm wet air, mix is saturated, usually over warm water
upslope fog rising air parcel cools to condensation temp, reaching saturation
valley fog cool air drains inversion confines cool air below the dew point. cold air drainage reduces air temp to cond. point
ten main cloud types cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, cumulonimbus(and mammatus), altocumulus, altostratus, nimbostratus, stratus, stratocumulus, cumulus
characteristics of higher clouds and examples icy, wispy, transmit light, less moisture..cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus
characteristics of middle clouds mostly water, some ice, usually water, even at freezing..altostratus, altocumulus
cirrus mare's tails, puffy streaks, wispy
cirrostratus halo around sun, doesn't look like cloud
cirrocumulus puffy, looks like sock fuzzies
altostratus darker cloud, spread out
altocumulus darker, obscures sun, puffy
characteristics of low clouds entirely water, (rarely ice, only in winter)
stratocumulus large puffy cottony, flat bottoms, sharp gradations in color and thickness
nimbostratus rain clouds
stratus layers, gradations in color
storm sequence, cloud development cumulus humilis to c. congestus to c nimbus
mammatus lobed at bottom, forms in sinking air assoc with sever tstorms..collapsing anvil clouds
altocumulus castellanus (accas) more vertical dev't than a normal antocumulus, can be precipitous (dries before it reaches ground)
lenticularis formed by upward deflection of air, often above topographic peaks, may be stacked (looks like dradle)
pileus like lenticularis, more subtle, forms above dev'g cumulus
undulatus wave-form, reflecting wave pattern in air flow, can be induced by topography, rippled
kelvin-helmhotz like crashing ocean waves in cross-section, results from shear
the three extremely high clouds mentioned nacreous, noctilucent, contrails
nacreous thin, form in stratosphere, low moisture, look ghostly, iridescent, all ice
noctilucent in mesosphere, low moisture and thin, bluish (hazy)
contrails made from jet engines of planes, hot exhaust is source of moisture
cumulonimbus v nimbostratus c.n. has vertical dev't and n.s. forms in sheets
clouds form when air lifts and COOLS. T or F True
four processes of air lifting to form clouds orographic, frontal, convection, and convergence of air at surface
orographic lifting creates precip on windward side and rainshadow (hot/dry) on leeward, ex is cascade range
air is absolutely stable when environmental lapse rate is greater than adiabatic lapse rate F. it's the opposite, think of an inversion
convection lifting air warms from sun and becomes buoyant and rises
convergence of air at surface low pressure systems or troughs, ex is stratus
frontal lifting warm air is stuck between two cells of cold air and is forced up
saturated adiabatic lapse rate cooling that occurs in a parcel of saturated air as it lifts, since it's wet it will also condense releasing latent heat
environmental lapse rate actual change in temp of air, depending on altitude
dry adiabatic lapse rate cooling of parcel of dry air as it rises
warming occurs in a parcel of air as it rises. T or F F.
air cools because pressure decreases. t or f T.
air will fall back down when warmer than surroundings F. will fall when cooler than surroundings
if ELR is less than DALR, but ELR is greater than SALR, air is conditionally unstable T. refer to diagram
as air rises, it cools more quickly F. air cools more slowly as it rises
unstable air is warmer than surrounds, so it rises
stable air lifted air is cooler than surroundings (and will sink), air dropped will be warmer than surroundings and rise
absolutely unstable air air lifted is warmer than surroundings, air cooled will be cooler than surroundings
conditionally unstable air air lifted at DALR is cooler than surrounding, once saturated cooling at SALR
what is happening with the air with respect to moisture in it at the base of clouds saturation occurs at lifting condensation level (LCL), this defines this place
saturaded air is stable til it cross ELR and becomes warmer than surroundings. T or F T
if a stratus cloud breaks up, it cools. T or F F, if it breaks up it will warm up
what is the DALR 10 degrees c per km
describe conditonally stable air DALR ) ELR ) MALR. Saturation occurs at LCL, that is the base of clouds. Unstable about the level of free convection, when it rises freely
what are the conditions that favor stability low ELR, cooling of low air, cold air advection, winds across cool surface or warming of high air
what conditions favor instability high ELR, warming of low air, solar heating of surface, warm air advection, wind across a warm surface or cooling of high air
explains stability within a cloud bottom is warmed by radiation from earth's surface, top is cooled by radiation upward, this causes increasing lapse rate, instability
lifting air (which expands as it lifts, top more than bottom) will decrease the lapse rate in the sheet of air F. it will increase the lapse rate
why does lifting a sheet of air increase its lapse rase because it expands as it lifts, top more than bottom, causing it to cool and inc lapse rate
rain drop v cloud droplet rain on avg is 2mm, cloud droplet is .02mm
cirrocumulus are smaller than altocumulus T
drizzle, associated with stratus clouds, falls more slowly because of a large surface area and air resistance F. surface area is smaller and resists air less
how many cloud droplets make one raindrop one million
saturation pressure above ice is less than that above liquid water True, because it's harder for water to come out fo ice into vapor phase, due to less moisture
two ways to get precipitation collision and coalescence AND bergeron-Wegener (ice crystal) process
collision and coalescence warm clouds, entirely above freezing, one drop is bigger with larger terminal velocity and starts to fall, colliding with others and they coalesce
why are rain drop size limited because once they reach terminal velocity, if they were to get any bigger they would split
intensity of rain, scale .01 to .1 in/hr is light.1 to .3 in/hr is moderatemore than.3 is heavy
intensity of snow based on visibility, more 1/2 mi is light1/4 to 1/2 is moderateless than 1/4 is heavy
what controls shapes of ice temperature and saturation
freezing rain supercooled, less than zero celcius, freezes to ice on surface (glaze), way worse than sleet
sleet clear ice pellets, less than 5 mm, formed by freezing of liquid drops
hail formation large balls of ice, forms in complex air motions of towering cumulonimbus cloud, bashing into supercooled water and growing concentric. Size depends on: how long in cloud, amount of water available for growth
terminal velocity larger mass to surface area ratio causes faster falling until it reaches t.v. and cannot speed up ..dec'n = acc'n
ASOS automated surface observing station. many instruments at various levels
thermometer measures temp, ASOS uses one to measure electrical resistance, as metal expands its ER increases
sling psychrometer (hygrometer) two thermometers slung through air with one wet sock and one dry. wet sock will cool and dry won't change if air is dry. If air is wet, wet bulb won't evaporate. amt of cooling is proportional to RH
ASOS uses a dew point hygrometer. T or F T
aneroid barometer uses volume of chamber, partial vacuum
cup anemometer measures wind, cups rotate in horizontal plane, gives speed
aerovane measures wind, propeller on wind vane determined velocity so both speed and direction are recorded
tipping bucket ASOS uses, measures rain, fill and tips, electronic signal produced, tips counted to get total (heated)
weighing-type measures all precipitation, accumulation gauge, newer at some ASOS
water equivolence measure of snow, ratio varies from 6:1 to 30:1 and depends on how packed snow is
snow range sensor measures snow, reflection from ground measumres distances, actual height, used in mountains
snow pillow measures snow, lands on pillow and is weighed, measures actual water equivolence
celiometer measures cloud height, cloud cover, has visibility sensor, uses scatter of light from clouds, precip ID sensor
wind speed and temp are measured at 20 m in height. T or F? F. They are measured at a height of 10m
RADAR radio detection and ranging, microwave transmitted in pulses, reflected by rain or snow, but not clouds, intensity of reflected energy corresponds to intensity of precip., not quite as accurate b/c it requires assumptions
Doppler Radar useful for detecting rotation in storms and tornadoes, measures wind speed where reg radar only gives reflection
radiosonde and rawinsonde instruments that measure temp, pressure and relative humidity, it adds wind speed and direction, balloons launched twice daily, product is a sounding on a skew-t diagram
satellites visible has best resolution, IR temp relates to cloud height, water vapor not clouds, all images come out black and white
UTC universal coordinated time (zulu) = greenwich mean time without DL savings. UTC -5=CDT in DL savings, UTC -6=CST off of DL savings
wind measured in mph or knots, direction described by azimuth
knot equal to one minute of latitude and 1 mile = 1.15 knots
why doesn't air flow upward from high pressure to low pressure? because the vertical gradient is countered by gravitational force-air tends to move due to temp and buoyancy
surface winds blow parallel to H pressure to L pressure and upper winds blow obliquely across isobars. T or F F. surface winds blow obliquely from H press to L press and upper winds blow parallel to isobards
what controls the frictinal force coriolis "force" - a product of other forces,
how is pressure gradient force related to wind development it is proportional to gradient and high gradient represents closely spaced isobars
coriolis "force" changes direction, but not speed of anything with respect to the ground, including air
which ways are air deflected in each hemisphere b/c of the coriolis force right in the N hemisphere, and left in the S hemisphere
how are upper atmosphere winds measured in iso-heights on surfaces of equal pressure
process of how we get resultant winds in upper atmosphere wind represents vector combination of PGF and Coriolis "force." Air moves form hi p to lo p due to PGF and is deflected by CF. Air is more deflected as CF increases with velocity. Winds end up parallel to isobars
process of how we get resultant surface winds frictional interaction with sea and land surfaces. friction slows wind, but doesn't reduce PGF, they are thirty degrees about isobars
geostrophic wind upper winds parallel to isobars, PGF and CF are equal and opposite
IR cloud images thin cirrus, bright and coldclear and dark
visible cloud images cumulonimbus and stratus (bright)
Created by: cblue
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