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Oral Path Exam 3

Oral Pathology Test 3

where are minor salivary glands not found? gingiva
what are the three disease of benign soft tissue neoplasms? papilloma verruca vulgaris condyloma acuminatum
what is the most common soft tissue mass in the soft palate? papilloma
what does pedunculated mean? big head, small neck
what does sessile mean? bread base, small head
where is papilla found? tongue, lips, soft palate
what is verruca vulgaris? common wart white painless nodule with papillary projections, common on the skin
how does a person get verruca vulgaris? same person from the skin to the mouth autoinoculation
condyloma acuminatum is also known as veneral wart, sexually transmitted disease
how does condyloma acuminatum present? sessile, pink, contender mass
what is the unique feature of canalicular adenoma? predisposition to occur in the upper lip 75% of the cases
what are two most common tumors that occur in the upper lip? pleomorphic adenoma canalicular adenoma
if the person is 60 years or older, the person with the lump in the upper lip typically has canalicular adenoma
if the person is younger than 40 years old, the person with the lump in the upper lip typically has... pleomorphic adenoma
where does pleomorhpic adenoma mostly occur? major gland (parotid gland) than minor gland palate is the most common site in the mouth
what is the most common salivary neoplasm? including both benign and malignant pleomorhpuc adenoma
where is war thin tumor or papillary cyst adenoma lymphomatous? almost exclusively found in the parotid gland second most common benign parotid tumor, may occur bilaterally
what is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm? Lipoma
where does Lipoma most commonly occur? trunk and extremities will float if placed in tube of water
what is the most common type of peripheral nerve neoplasm? neurofibroma
how do you diagnose a Schwannoma? encapsulated, antoni A and antoni B tissue
what are the components of neurofibromatosis? cafe au lait macules, axillary freckling (Crowe's sign), Lisch nodules in iris
what is a leimyoma? neoplasm of smooth muscle
what is rhabdomyoma? neoplasm of skeletal muscles
what are the most common sites for granular cell tumor to occur? tongue, bucal mucosa
where does congenital epulis or congenital granular cell lesion occur and on who mostly? female babies on maxillary alveolar ridge
osteoblasts are... bone forming cells secrete collagen material that becomes the matrix that calcifies
osteoclasts are.... bone breaking down cells, resorbing the bone
osteocytes are... matrix material laid down by osteoblasts calcifies and the cell is trapped cells inside the bone that interpret the stress we place on the bone (signaling system)
endochondral bone formation bones that form from a preexisting collagen model osteosteoblasts lay down the matrix on preexisting cartilage model long tubular bones of the body, arms/legs/ribs
intramembranous bone formation bone is laid down between two sheets of soft tissue flat bones in our body, skull, jaws, wrists, ankles, spines
what are the metabolic disease of bone formation rickets, scurvy, hyperparathyroidism
what are the idiopathic disease of bone formation pager's disease fibrous dysplasia aneurysmal bone cyst
what is the most common of the inherited bone diseases? osteogenesis imperfecta
what is osteogenesis imperfecta caused by? defect in osteoblastic activity, they can produce collagen but the collagen they produce is defective collagen
what are the associated features of osteogenesis imperfecta? dentinogenesis imperfecta, blue sclera, hearing loss, joint hyperflexiility
what is the exact opposite of osteogenesis imperfecta? osteopetrosis (bones are too dense) osteogenesis imperfecta (bones are too weak
where is the defect in osteopetrosis? osteoclastic cells or bone remodeling cells which results in a marked increase in bone density
what are the two types of osteopetrosis? infantile autosomal recessive (more severe) adult autosomal dominant form
what happens in achondroplasia? defect in endochondral bone formation, have problems with long bones in the body, membranous bones form normally autosomal dominant
what is the normal appearance of someone with achondroplasia? dwarfism, leg bones and vertebrae are shorter than normal
what is cleidocranial dysplasia a defect in? intramembranous bone production bones won't fuse with surround bone, delayed closure of suture lines
what does cleidocranial dysplasia look like? elongated neck with stooped shoulders, large head multiple impacted and supernumerary teeth, high arched palate, often clefted
what is craniofacial dysplasia? defect in membranous bone metabolism intramembranous bones fuse too soon or too early exophthalmos or bug eyes,divergent strabismus
what are the oral craniofacial dysplasia oral manifestation? midface deficiency, mandibular pseudoprognathism, high arched palate
what is the only area of the oral cavity that is involved in cherubim? the jaws, multilocular radiolucent lesions alveolar bone enlargement, impacted teeth and malocclusion
what is Rickets associated with? deficiency in vitamin D during infancy retards growth, bowing of the legs
what is vitamin D associated with in bone Allowing calcium to be deposited on the bone matrix defective mineralization of osteoid matrix
what is vitamin C deficiency associated with? diets lacking in fresh fruits and vegetables results in inadequate collagen synthesis
what causes hyperparathyroidism? excessive production of parathromone by the parathyroid glands
what are the two types of hyperparathyroid? primary: adenoma most often secondary: kidney disease
what is parath hormone responsible for? maintain normal calcium level in your bone can increase calcium absorption through your gut makes the kidneys kick out phosphate
what is seen in the jaws with hyperparatyroidism? multiple radiolucencies in the jaws
what are the clinical features of hyperparathyroidism? moans: mental confusion strones: kidney, salivary, other bones: loss of lamina dura, trabecular pattern, brown tumors, ground glass appearance abdominal groans: duodenal ulcers
what is the laboratory findings in hyperparathyroidism? elevated serum Ca+2 decreased serum PO4-3
what is the other name of Paget's disease? osteitis deformans causes defamation and weakening of bones
what are the symptoms of Paget's disease? due to incoordination of bone deposition and bone resorption result is distortion and weakening of bones
what causes Paget's disease? slow virus of paramyxovirus group
what are the clinical manifestation of Paget's disease? continuing enlargement over a prolonged period (hat size increase) complain of bone pain
what are the oral manifestation of Paget's disease? enlargement of maxilla, opening of diastema cotton wool appearance and hypercementosis on roots of teeth
what are the three types of fibrous dysplasia? monostotic fibrous dysplasia: one bone affected, adults over the age of 30 polyostotic fibrous dysplasia: multiple bones affected but not connected, younger teenagers and children Albright's syndrome: multiple bones affected, cafe au lait pigmentations
what is cranifacial fibrous dysplasia commonly in the head and neck multiple bones, contiguous bones or bones close to one another age is older teenagers and young adults under age of 30
what is the characteristic facial presentation? elevation of eye, depression of commissure obliteration of the nasolabial fold
what is most commonly affected in fibrous dysplasia? posterior maxilla
if you see ground glass quality in x-rays, what can diseases can you conclude? hyperparathyroidism or fibrous dysplasia
how does aneurysmal bone cyst look like on an x-ray? blow out lesion "fire cracker" unilocular or multilocular lucency
what are the symptoms of acute osteomyelitis? pain usually accompanies, less than 1 month in duration lymph node swelling and elevated white blood cell count
what is a characteristic presentation of a person with chronic osteomyelitis? multiple extractions with out relief of pain may or may not be swelling or pain
what is characteristic of a radiograph of a person with chronic osteomyelitis? increase density of surrounding bone
what does focal schelerosing osteomyelitis present as? focal area of increased bone density, bone scar one of the most common radiographic consults sent
if an inflammation is NOT associated with a tooth on a radiograph what is it most likely? focal osteosclerosis
if an inflammation of bone on a radiograph is associated with an apex of a tooth what is it most likely condensing osteitis tooth may be non vital, if vital probably has something that contributes to pulpal inflammation widening of PDL space
where is osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis or Garre's osteomyelitis located ? inflammation just below the periosteum, bony hard swelling associated with onion skin pattern radiographically egg shell bone
how does bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis happen? drugs inhibit action of osteoclasts, also effects angiogenesis and osteblasts drug half life is 15 years or greater
what is the synonym for alveolar osteitis? dry socket, post extraction complication
where does alveolar osteitis usually occur? mandibular third molars, most commonly in women
what causes alveolar osteitis? loss or breakdown of the blood clot in the socket, exposed bone visible without soft tissue covering, produces severe pain and foul odor
what is osteoradionecrosis always seen with? radiation therapy, radiation permanently damages the bone by destroying blood vessels in the area
what population do we typically see periapical cemental dysplasia in? middle aged black females
what part of the mouth is most affected in periapical cemental dysplasia anterior mandible, painless and discovered on routine radiograph with vital teeth late stages have opaque with a thin lucent rim
what population does florid cement osseous dysplasia typically affect? middle age, black females
what part of the mouth is most affected in florid cement osseous dysplasia typically effect? multiple posterior quadrants, usually painless and often discovered on routine radiograph, mixture of lucent and opaque presence
what is unique about focal cement osseous dysplasia? does not affect classic population (middle age black females) females still predominate, mandible usually site(premolar and 1st molar), no expansion seen
what population does Langerhan's cell disease typically effect? younger patients, 50% are under the age of 10
what is the classic presentation of Langerhan's cell disease in radiographs? teeth floating in air
where is traumatic bone cyst located? radiolucent area in the mandible usually found on routine radiographic exam
who typically gets traumatic bone cysts and what does it look like? typically teenagers or early 20's scalloping of the lesion up between tooth roots
what is the surgical findings of traumatic bone cyst? an empty hole in the bone, little to no tissue recovered not expanding lesions
what is central giant cell granulomas? expansions of the alveolus, multilocular appearance rarely seen posteriorly
what are exostosis? torus palatinus torus mandibularis buccal area of maxillary or mandibular alveolar ridge most common site, often bilateral
where are torus palatinus always located? located in the midline of the hard palate
where do torus mandibularis typically occur? lingual premolar area of the mandible usually bilateral
what is the difference between osteomas and exostosis? osteomas can be found in other parts of the body where exostosis are only found in the oral cavity osteomas have different radiographic appearance sometimes
what is Gardner's syndrome? autosomal dominant disorder, passed from parent to child multiple osteomas (forehead and jaws or angle area of mandible) supernumerary teeth often, cysts in the skin polp contributes to colon cancer
what is the size and symptoms of osteoid osteomas? small lesions pain that the patient can isolate to a single area, point tenderness that corresponds to radiograph has pain at night
what is the size and symptoms of osteoblastoma? larger in size
how do you tell the difference between osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma? have to look at it under a microscope mixed lucent opaque lesions
what is the classic radiographic appearance of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma sun ray appearance bone production above alveolar crest spiked root appearance
what are endocrine glands? produce hormones that are secreted directly into the bloodstream with no duct system present, exert effects on the entire body
what causes hyper function of endocrine system? proliferation of endocrine tissue (neoplasia or hyperplasia) loss of negative feedback signal
what causes hypo function of the endocrine system? destruction of the endocrine tissue by inflammatory infections, infarction or surgical procedures loss of the positive stimulating signal
what hormones are secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland ADH and oxytocin
what happens in hyper function of growth hormone in pituitary gland? giantism (excess growth hormone before puberty) acromegaly (excess growth hormone after puberty)
what are the oral manifestations of giantism? macrodontia, mandibular enlargement with prognathism
what are the oral manifestations of acromegaly? enlargement of the skull and jaws mandibular prognathism, often anterior open bite development of diastemas, macroglossia
what happens in hypo function of growth hormone? dwarfism (normal proportions maintained)
what are the oral manifestations of dwarfism? delayed eruption, prolonged retention of deciduous teeth microdontia, failure of development of third molars crowding teeth and malocclusion
what is caused by hyper function of thyroid hormone? Grave's disease, toxic multi nodular goiter
what are the oral manifestations of Grave's disease? mass in anterior of the neck, often U shaped glossopyrosis or burning tongue tremor of the tongue
what is the major potential complication of dental treatment with hyperthyroidism? thyroid storm (hyperthyriodism)
what is caused by hypothyroidism? cretinism or congenital hypothyroidsim (occurs at young age) myxedema (adult onset)
what are the classic signs of hypothyroidism? fluid retention in body, crenated tongue
what are the oral manifestations of myxedema? enlarged tongue, lingual thyroid nodule
what does the parathyroid gland control? calcium levels in the blood, nerve function
what are the oral manifestations of hyperparathyroidism? radiolucent lesions in the jaws, loss of normal trabecular pattern and lamina dura looks like ground glass, brown lesions
what are the oral manifestations of hypoparathyroidism? transient problem partial anodontia (failure of formation), malformed or hypo plastic teeth increased susceptibility to candidiasis
what happens when there is adrenal cortical hyper function cushing's syndrome "moon face" with decreased mobility of tongue and muscle mastication
what happens when there is hypo function of the adrenal cortical hormones Waterhouse Friderichsen's disease- death within 3 days Addison's Disease
what are the oral manifestations of Addison's disease? can't produce significant quantities of steroid hormones bronzing of the skin and face, macular pigmented lesions on the oral mucosa
what is the most common cancer? basal cell carcinoma
what does basal cell carcinoma look like? nonhealing ulcers, often rolled bordered firm and fixed, grows very slowly, raised nodules with depressed centers
where is the most common location for adencarcinomas intraorally? posterior lateral border of the hard palate
what do we call a sarcoma of fibrous tissue? fibrosarcoma
what do we call a sarcoma of fat tissue liposarcoma
what do we call a sarcoma of blood vessels angiosarcoma
what is Kaposi's sarcoma? in people with AIDS or immunosupression
what do we call a sarcoma in the smooth muscle? leiomyosarcoma
what do we call a sarcoma in the skeletal muscle? rhabdomyosarcoma
what do malignant lymphomas look like multifocal, painless, firm and rubbery
what are the two types of lymphoma? Hodgkin's Disease: grows in the lymph nodes, cured with radiation Non Hodgkin's: grows anywhere
what is the most common disease inside your jaw? metastasic disease
Created by: Chobchi
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