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DEN 110

Chapters 21.22.23

Focal Spot small spot on the TUNGSTEN TARGET where the electrons hit
Collimator a lead disc with an opening in the middle that reconstructs the beam and filters out additional weak rays
Film Sizes 0. Child 1. Narrow Anterior Film 2. Adult 3. Long Bite-Wing 4. Occlusal
X-ray Film Is Sensitive To? stray radiation, high temperatures and chemicals
Contrast the difference between the shades of gray
Density the degree of darkness on x-ray (gray scale)
Lead Apron/ Thyroid Collar all patients should receive a lead apron and thyroid collar when being exposed to radiation
Primary Radiation central beam that comes from the x-ray tube head
Scatter Radiation deflected from its path as matter
Secondary Radiation when the primary x-rays strike the patient or contact matter
Leakage Radiation radiation leaks in all directions from the tube head
MOST SENSITIVE Lymphoid, Reproductive cells, bone marrow, intestinal epithelium, thyroid
LEAST SENSITIVE kidney, muscle, nerves
LESS SENSITIVE mature bone, salivary glands, liver
MODERATLY SENSITIVE skin, intestinal track, oral mucosa
SENSITIVE connective tissues, growing bone
MPD (Maximum Permissible Dose) 0.05 SV or 5 rems
Latent Period the period between direct exposure and the development of biological effects
Dosimeter Badge must be worn at all time in the dental office
Kilovoltage the quality or penetrating power of the central beam. the higher the KV the stronger the power. common setting for KV is from 70-90
Miliamperage the amount or quality of electrons
Paralleling Technique Parallel to the long axis of the tooth
Bisecting Technique used to expose Periapical, bite-wing, and occlusal radiographs
Periapical Radiograph pictures the entire tooth
Elongation Caused by TOO LITTLE ANGULATION
Foreshortening Caused by TOO MUCH ANGULATION
Overlapping incorrect horizontal (mesial or distal) placement
Cone Cutting x-ray beam missed part of the film
Clear Film the film was not exposed to radiation
Blurred Image movement of the patients head or x-ray tube head or from the x-ray moving in the patients mouth
Herring Bone Pattern tire tracks appear when the x-ray film is backward in the patients mouth
Light Film under processed, occurs while exposing film and during processing
Dark Film over developed, occurs when developing solution temperature is to high/low, its to strong or the film was left in the developer for to long
Brown Stain improper/ insuficient rinsing or washing of the film during the processing sequence
Streaks On The Film due to unclean rollers or x-ray rash
65-70 Degrees ideal temperature for develpoing solution
82-95 Degrees temperature for the automatic processor
Routine X-ray Intervals 6 months to 12 months
Computer Monitor : Human Eye 200 : 32
Advantages Of Digital 1. frees up space for storage 2. less radiation to the patient 3. patient can view the x-ray while operator explains 4. immediate results
Disadvantages Of Digital 1. system failures 2. cost and trainging of employees 3. infection control (lack there of)
Intensifying Screens what cassettes are lined with
Panoramic Views entire dentition, nasal orbital areas, alveolar bone and carious lesions
Created by: red112409