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Chemistry of Life

Biology

TermDefinition
Organic Molecules composed of both carbon and hydrogen
Inorganic Molecules that do not contain both hydrogen and carbon
Covalent Bond A strong chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between two atoms
Polar Covalent Bond A chemical bond formed when electrons are unequally shared between two atoms...a molecule of water is held together by this type of bond
Hydrogen Bond A weak chemical bond formed between a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom of a different molecule
Cohesion The attraction of adjacent water molecules due to hydrogen bonding
Surface Tension The bonding of molecules at the water's surface...the surface of water can support light objects due to this property
Adhesion The attraction of water to other surfaces (such as glass)
Capillary Action The ability of water to move through narrow spaces
Carbohydrate A type of organic molecule which provides energy to living things
Ose A suffix meaning "sugar"
Monosaccharide A simple sugar (C6H12O6)
Glucose A type of monosaccharide formed by photosynthesis
Fructose A type of monosaccharide found in fruits
Galactose A type of monosaccharide that forms lactose
Disaccharide Two monosaccharides bonded together (C12H22O11)
Lactose A type of disaccharide found in milk products (glucose + galactose)
Sucrose A type of disaccharide known as "table sugar" (glucose + fructose)
Polysaccharide Three or more monosaccharides bonded together
Starch A type of polysaccharide found in plants formed by bonding the excess glucose formed by photosynthesis
Glycogen A type of polysaccharide found in human muscle cells formed from the excess glucose you eat
Cellulose A type of polysaccharide that forms the tough wall of a cell of a plant cell...also known as fiber
Protein(Polypeptides) A chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds...they are the only organic molecule containing nitrogen...these molecules have six important functions
Amino Acid (peptide)...the building block that composes a polypeptide...the sequence of these determines the shape and function of a protein
Carboxyl Group The side branch of an amino acid that has C=O-O-H
Amino Group The side branch of an amino acid that contains nitrogen
Functional Group The part of an amino acid that differs among amino acids
Denaturation The permanent destruction of a proteins's shape due to extreme changes in PH and temperature
Hormone A chemical messenger that travels through the bloodstream to deliver a specific message to cells...some hormones are proteins
Antibody A specialized protein made by white blood cells to help destroy disease-causing organisms
Enzyme A specialized protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up the rate of a chemical reaction
Lipids A type of organic molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that functions in providing heat, cushioning organs, as a reserve energy source and steroid hormones...the three types are triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
Fat This is the type of lipid that you eat
Fatty Acids A chain of carbons and hydrogens that bond to a glycerol molecule in a phospholipid and triglyceride
Glycerol The building block of a phospholipid and triglyceride that combines with fatty acids
Hydrophobic Literally means "water fearing"...this term describes the fatty acid tails of a phospholipid that repel water and form the inner region of the cell membrane
Hydrophylic Literally means "water loving"...this term describes the glycerol heads of a phospholipid that attract water and form the outer regions of the cell membrane
Saturated fat Fats that are solid at room temperature...these fats are found in animal products such as cheeses, meat, and butter
Trans fat Fats created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid...another name for them is "partially hydrogenated oils"...these fats clog arteries and can lead to heart disease and obesity
Unsaturated fat Fats that are liquid at room temperature...these fats are found in plant products such as oils and nuts
Steriods A type of lipid including cholesterol and hormones
Estrogen A female steroid sex hormone
Testosterone A male steroid sex hormone
Cholestrol A type of lipid (steroid) that gives cell membranes their flexibility
Indicator A substance that is added to a solution to detect the presence of a specific substance
Benedict's Solution An indicator that tests for the presence of sugar in a solution...this indicator turns yellow-orange when sugar is present...it requires heat to work
Lugol's Iodone solution An indicator that tests for the presence of starch in a solution...it turns blue/black in he presence of starch
Biuret solution An indicator that tests fir the presence of protein...it turns violet in the presence of protein
Nucleic acid A type of organic molecule that functions in protein synthesis in a cell
nucleotide The building block a a nucleic acid composed of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
DNA A type of nucleic acid that functions as the "master set of instructions" during protein synthesis...it is an antiparallel double-helix made up of the bases A,T,C, and G
Deoxyribose The sugar in a DNA nucleotide
RNA A type of nucleic acid that functions as the "blueprint set of instructions" during protein synthesis...it is a single-stranded molecule made up of the bases A,U,C, and G
Ribose The sugar in an RNA nucleotide
Anti-parallel A term used to describe the structure of DNA...the two strand are parallel to one another but run in opposite directions
Watson and Crick The men who discovered the double-helical structure of DNA was a double helix
Monomer A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
Polymer A chain of monomers
Reactant The substances needed for a chemical reaction...they are written to the left of the arrow in a chemical reaction
Product The substances formed by a chemical reaction written to the right of the arrow
Dehydration syntheseis The process of joining monomers together to form a polymer...this requires the removal of water
Hydrolysis (Digestion)...the process of breaking polymer apart...this requires adding water
Catalyst A molecule that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction as catalysts
Substrate The reactant that joins with an enzyme in a chemical reaction
Active site The part of an enzyme with a specific shape that joins to a particular substrate
"ase" The suffix that most enzymes have in their name
Created by: gmottola