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Unit 1 Vocabulary

Introduction to Biology

TermDefinition
Biology Scientific study of all forms of life
biodiversity variety of life within an area
data Observations and measurements recorded during an experiment
organism an individual living thing
homeostasis regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism, sometimes called dynamic equilibrium
hypothesis proposed explanation or answer to a scientific question
independent variable condition or factor that is manipulated by a scientist during an experiment
Dependent variable experimental data collected through observation and measurement
experiment process that tests a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions
metabolism all chemical processes that synthesize or breakdown materials within an organism
constant condition that is controlled so that it does not change during an experiment
Observation using the senses to study the world; using tools to collect measurements; examining previous research results.
theory Proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results.
Chloroplast Organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy; contain chlorophyll
cell theory theory that states that all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life.
organelle Membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell.
cytoplasm Jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles.
cytoskeleton network of proteins, such as micro tubules and microbial nets, inside eukaryotic cells that supports and shapes cells.
prokaryotic cell cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
eukaryotIc cells. Cell that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
nucleus organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of the cell's DNA
ribosome Structure that links amino acids together to form proteins
mitochondrion bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell
cell wall rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi and bacteria.
Carbohydrate Molecule made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen;includes sugars and starches.
lipid Non polar molecules made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen;i includes fats and oils
Protein Polymer made up of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
Nucleic Acids Polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms; includes DNA and RNA
Cellular respiration Process that makes ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present.
ATP Adenosine triphosphate ; high energy molecule that contains, within its bonds energy that cells can use.
organic Biology word for carbon based compounds; includes, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
glucose Monosaccharide, product of photosynthesis, carbohydrate.
Stomata Singular stoma; pores in the cuticle of a plant through which gas exchange occurs.
guard cell One of a pair of cellls that controls the opening and closing of a stoma in plant tissue.
chlorophyll Light -absorbing pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms
photosynthesis Process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbondioxide and water
Mitosis Process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents
cytokinesis Process by which the cells cytoplasm divides
asexual reproduction Process by which offspring are produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of an egg and sperm.
organ Group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions.
tissue Group of cells that work together to perform a specific function.
organ system Two or more organs that work together in a coordinated wY to carry out similar functions
differentiation Process by which committed cells acquire the structures and functions of highly specialized cells
species Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
Chloroplast Organelle made up of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy; contains chlorophyll
Diffusion Movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Osmosis Diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
Base Compound that takes up hydrogen ions when dissolved in water; pH of greater than 7.0;
Acid Compound that gives up a proton (H+) when dissolved in water. pH of less than 7.0
Active transport Movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration; requires energy input by the cell
Endocytosis Uptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane
Passive transport Movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input fro the cell.
Exocytosis Release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vehicle with the membrane
Amino acid Molecule that makes up proteins; made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur.
Cell membrane Double-layer of phospholipids that form a boundary between a cell and its surrounding environment and controls the movement of substances into and out of a cell.
monomer Molecular subunit of a polymer
Polymer large, carbon-bases molecule formed by monomers
Vacuole organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food to enzymes that are needed by the cell.
Process a natural phenomenon marked by gradual changes that lead toward a particular result examples photosynthesis, cellular respiration writing,
synthesis to make
Created by: Dr. Lamont