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MIP 300- Unit 2

infection (definition) when a parasite is multiplying in/on a host
infectious disease (definition) when a host cannot function normally
pathogens (definition) cause disease
pathogenicity (definition) organism's ability to cause disease
virulence (definition) degree or intensity of pathogenicity
three factors affecting outcome of host/parasite relationship # organisms, virulence, host's resistance
symptoms unobservable
signs observable changes
disease syndrome collection of signs and symptoms
infectivity (definition) ability of an organism to start an infection
invasiveness (definition) ability of an organism to spread
pathogenic potential (definition) ability of an organisms to cause symptoms (toxins!)
3 factors affecting virulence infectivity, invasiveness, pathogenic potential
infectivity affected by (4) ability to be transmitted, ability to adhere, ability to grow, ability to avoid immune response
fomite (definition) inanimate objects that are contaminated (like a doorknob)
4 ways of direct transmission airborne, horizonal, vertical, vector
horizontal direct transmission kissing etc
vertical direct transmission pregnancy
vector direct transmission insects
indirect transmission (3) airborne (from soil etc), contaminated food/water, contact (fomites)
5 places adhesins are found fimbriae, capsule/glycocalyx/slime layer, s-layer, teichoic acid, viral capsids and envelopes
teichoic acid for attachment; found in gram positive bacteria
s-layer may be used for attachment; protein layer around cells
host must have correct ___ for parasite to grow pH, oxygen, temperature
microbial products to avoid immune system (3) IgA protease, leukocidins, capsule
IgA protease cleaves IgA
leukocidins kill lysosomes in WBCs
how to hide within a host cell? (2) escape phagosome before fuses w/ lysosome; prevent phagosome from fusing with lysosome
M-cell targeting (salmonella)-> releases enzyme that makes these ruffle (immune cells in GI tract) so bacteria sink into them and get taken up
macrophage targeting (Tuberculosis)-> tricks cells into spreading across mucous membranes and into circulation (hides in macrophages)
microbial products involved in invasion (definition) all break down tissue so more space for microbe
Leishmaniasis protozoal skin infection that can become visceral
neurotoxin treatment antiserum (aka antitoxin) AND antibiotics
botulism causes flaccid paralysis
tetanus causes spastic paralysis
tetanus toxin tetanospasmin
enterotoxins (definition) affect GI tract
enterotoxin examples (2) Vibrio cholera, E. coli
cytotoxin (definition) affects cellular functions
cytotoxin (examples) Corynebacterium diptheriae, C. perfringens
Corynebacterium diptheriae diptheria toxin; creates pseudomembrane of dead bacteria+neutrophils which clogs throat
Clostridium perfringens releases a-toxin-> removes head from phospholipids, breaks down muscle tissue (causes gas gangrene)
superantigen (definition) over-stimulates the immune system; causes similar response to endotoxins
superantigen example S. aureus TSST1 (toxic shock syndrome); shock dilates blood vessels, causes rashes (>20% of T-cells activated)
exotoxin genes (3) plasmid, lysogenic phage, chromosomal
which disease must have phage to be virulent? Diptheria
toxoids inactivated toxins
DPT vaccine toxoids-> diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
why is there no vaccine for lipid A? the immune system doesn't recognize it and launch a response
septic shock cascade caused by lipid A; blood clotting factor that over stimulates 4 systems; unregulated blood clotting which leads to organ failure **vasodilation
pelvic inflammatory disease Neisseria gonorrhea; adhesins stick to sperm, scar tissue that blocks fallopian tubes
damage caused by inflammation macrophages/neutrophils release toxic molecules that cause tissue damage
damage caused by antibodies antigen/antibody complexes settle in kidneys and joints that elicits an immune response -> tissue damage
how does herpes evade immune system? prevent MHC I on cell surface
skin as an innate physical barrier keratinocytes (keratin is H2O repellant), dry, top layer is dead, acidic, salty
fungal infection that invades skin ringworm
Streptococcus pyogenes exotoxin A= shock; exotoxin B= melts tissue/muscle underneath skin
mucosa columnar cells that form barrier, release mucous (prevents adhesions and traps microbes)
problems that weaken mucous defense smoking (kills cilia), asthma, cystic fibrosis
mucociliary escalator ciliated cells and mucous trap and propel microbes away from lungs and into throat
how microbes evade GI tract (4) resist saliva, strong adhesins, capsules, slime layers
microbes response to stomach acid pH resistant (produce base), resistant spores
cervical mucous, prostatic fluid, tears contain ___ lysozyme and lactoferrin
defensins punch holes in membrane
lactoferrin/transferrin sequester iron away from microbes
bacteriocin produced by normal flora; kill other bacteria
complement 3 functions opsonization, MAC, inflammation
cytokines protein communication molecules
interferon response infected cell releases it, other cells have receptors and synthesize antiviral proteins
granulocytes (definition) contain toxic molecules
agranuloytes (definition) do not contain toxic molecules
macrophages are called ___ in blood monocytes
dendritic cells phagocytosis; present in skin and mucosa
neutrophils first responders (in blood)
inflammation (4) bacteria introduced; histamine released; neutrophils roll and stop; extravassation
death from fever occurs at ___ 109.4 degrees F
two substances that cause fever pyrogens (exogenous= LPS etc; endogenous=interleukin-1)
why are fevers good? (4) slows microbial growth, inactivates some toxins, increases immune activity, forces person to feel ill
two immunological responses primary= first exposure; secondary= memory response
antigen a substance that the body sees as foreign and mounts an immune response
epitopes short AA sequences that are recognized by antibodies and T-cells
when active, CD8 cells are called (and activated by whom?) CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) *activated by t-helper CD4
CD4 aka (bossy) T helper cells
CD8 cells are important for fighting viruses and tumor cells
how do C8 cells kill? make pore, insert enzymes, apoptosis
B-cells recognize and bind to antigen using the BCR (surface bound antibody) after receiving cytokine signal
memory B cells stay in lymph nodes until second infection
IgM secreted after infection, pentameric
IgD unknown function, stays bound to B-cell
IgG most abundant during 2nd infection, *crosses placenta (monomeric), blood!
IgA mucosal surfaces (dimeric)
IgE allergies (binds to mast cells), monomeric
5 functions of antibodies complement fixation, neutralization, opsonization, (agglutination, precipitation)
complement fixation antibodies trigger complement cascade
opsonization (antibodies) same process as complement does
neutralization antibodies surround microbe and prevent it from binding to a cell
live attenuated vaccines live culture no longer pathogenic (vaccine) *can mutate and be virulent
activated/killed vaccines killed with heat or chemicals
toxoids inactivated toxins (vaccines)
polysaccharide capsules vaccine type; copy of the coat of microbes
what do B-cells do? recognize an epitope, and make an antibody (IgM initially, IgG later)
protein vaccines recombinant or native (new)
DNA vaccines inject plasmids that express antigens in host tissues (in clinical testing)
recombinant vector vaccines use of viruses or bacteria to deliver genes of interest (in clinical testing)
conjugate vaccines link toxoid to polysaccharide component to help target T-cells
how does HIV work? kills CD4 cells (no antibody, no CTL) **increased cancer and opportunistic infections
how does Epstein-Barr virus work? over proliferation of B and T cells
how do herpes/measles work? hide antigens from surface of presenting cells
how does the flu work? changes antigens each year
How does Tuberculosis work? reproduce inside WBCs
our definition for organic 2 or more carbons
heterotrophs use reduced organic molecules as carbon source
trace element function help in metabolic functions
phototrophs reduce or oxidize CO2? reduce
bioremediation cleaning/plastic making using microbes
Exxon Valdez oil spill add P and N to stimulate oil-eating bacteria
chemical work molecule synthesis
E0 values more negative= give electrons; positive= receive electrons
epidemiology the study of distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations
outbreak higher than expected occurrence in a small group (WWII vets pneumonia)
pandemic occurrence higher than expected worldwide (influenza)
nosocomial infection illnesses associated with hospitalization
endemic disease steady but low frequency (herpes)
epidemic occurrence higher than expected (index case)
zoonoses animal disease transmitted to humans (80% of known diseases)
prairie dogs transmit the plague
deer mice transmit hanta virus (sheds)
vectors and ___ are the same thing carriers
hepatitis A/E transient
hepatitis B/C chronic
convalescent getting better, large # of microbes
most infectious w/ flu when? prodromal
passive mechanical vector vector carries it outside of its body
passive biological vector animal carries it inside its body
active biological vector bite, defecate, regurgitate in tissue
antigenic drift example mixing up H's and N's of influenza
antigenic shift example mutations in H and N antigens
when do you for sure want antibiotics (4) rash/stiff neck/fever, sore throat that doesn't go away, skin infections, bladder infections
what did Bonnie Bassler study? squid that used bacteria to hide its shadow; pumped 95% of them out in the morning; enough for quorum sensing by night time
types of quorum sensing species-specific and species-nonspecific
what is the system that removes microbes from the lungs? mucociliary escalator
infections that one gets at hospitals nosocomial
mice= infected but cannot transmit to cats; fleas carry disease to cats and they get sick: mouse= ___; flea=____ reservoir; vector
you travel to Africa and develop Ebola, which antibody most effective in helping to clear it? IgG (blood)
2 antigens and 7 epitopes for a parasite- how many B cells specific for it? 1 for each epitope (7)
2 different antibodies specific for same epitope- they will have different __ constant regions on the heavy chains
roommate has hep A; you get gamma globulin shot; if they develop it 3 years later will you be protected? no, it likely mutated (it's also acute)
asked to develop a toxoid specific for the C difficile toxin- what will you create? the toxin that is deactivated by chemicals or heat
what would happen w/ complement deficiency? lack of pore production on pathogens
smoker gets lung infections why? smoking kills cilia
3 ways TSST an LPS are different exotoxin/endotoxin; actively secreted/not; made of protein/made of lipopolysaccharides
2 ways TSST and LPS same both lead to shock and both have no vaccine
which antibody inhibits toxin binding to receptors in the liver IgG
H2S-> S could be done by aerobic chemolithotrophy or anaerobic chemolithotrophy
NO3- -> NO2- could be done by anaerobic chemolithotrophy or anaerobic respiration
final electron acceptor in methanogenesis CO2
Created by: melaniebeale