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the ____ is a simple squamous epithelium and underlying areolar tissue. The squamous epithelial lining of the cardio vascular system is called an _____ endocardium, endothelium
the ___ is the serous membrane that forms the outer wall of the pericardial cavity. The parietal pericardium is reinforced by a _____ together they form the ____ parietal pericardium, dense fibrous layer, pericardial sac
the epicardium or ____ is a serous membrane that consist of an exposed ____ and underlying layer of ____ that is attached to the myocardium visceral pericardium, mesothelium, areolar tissue
the ___ contains muscle bundles that wrap around the atria and from figure-eights that encircle the great vessels atrial myocardium
Cardiac muscle cells are ______ connected to each other, for this reason the cardiac muscle has been called the mechanically, chemically, and electrically, functional syncytium (sin-sish-e-um)
cardiac muscle cells are almost totally dependent on ____ to obtain the energy they need to continue contracting aerobic metabolism
at an intercalated disc, the plasma membranes of two adjacent cardiac muscle cells are extensively intertwined and bound together by ___ and ___ gap junctions, desmosomes
the gap junctions allow ions and small molecules to move from one cell to another
your wrist, where the balloon folds back on itself, corresponds to the ___, to which the great vessels, the largest veins and arteries in the body are attached base of the heart
the pericardial cavity contains ____ mL of pericardial fluid. This fluid acts as a ____ lubricant that reduces friction between the opposing surfaces
pathogens can infect the pericardium, producing ____. The inflamed pericardial surfaces rub against each other , producing a distinctive scratching sound pericarditis
The pericardial cavity (or pericardial space) is a potential space between the ____ and____. It contains a supply of serous fluid. The serous fluid that is found in this space is known as the pericardial fluid. parietal pericardium, visceral layer
traumatic injuries can dmg pericardium which can result in fluid accumulation within the pericardial cavity, which can restrict the movement of the heart. This condition called ____ can also be caused by _____ cardiac tamponade, acute pericarditis
a fibrous remnant of a fetal connection between the aorta and pulmonary trunk that attaches the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch? ligamentum arteriosum
___ mark the boundaries between the atria and ventricles and between left and right ventricles sulci (shallow grooves)
____ have relatively thin muscular walls and are highly expandable. When not filled with blood, the outer portion of each atrium deflates and becomes a lumpy, wrinkled flap atria
____ marks the border between the atria and the ventricles, adipose tissue often accumulates in the is location coronary sulcus
____ shallow depression the marks the boundary between the left and right ventricles anterior interventricular sulcus
the ____ carries blood collected from the myocardium by numerous coronary veins and conveys the blood to the right atrium coronary sinus
the ___ on posterior surface marks boundary between the left and right ventricles posterior interventricular sulcus
the left and right ___ arteries originate at the base of the ascending aorta, where blood pressure is the highest in the systemic circuit coronary
myocardial pressure is not steady it peaks while ___ , and almost ceases while it ___ the heart muscle is relaxed, contracts
___ supplies blood to the right atrium and follows the coronary sulcus around the heart right coronary artery
___ from the right coronary artery supply the surface of the right ventricle marginal arteries
the left coronary artery supplies blood to the ____, ___ and ___ left ventricle, left atrium, inter ventricular septum
the ___ artery is a branch of the left coronary artery that curves to the left around the coronary sulcus, eventually meeting and fusing with small branches of the right coronary artery circumflex artery
____ or posterior descending artery, runs toward the apex within the posterior inter ventricular sulcus. Supplies blood to the inter ventricular septum and adjacent portions of the ventricles posterior interventricular artery
The middle cardiac vein drains the area supplied by the ___ artery and empties into the ___. posterior interventricular,coronary sinus
The coronary sinus obtains blood that drains from the great and middle cardiac veins
____ curves to the left around the coronary sulcus, eventually meeting and fusing with small branches of the right coronary artery? circumflex artery
the atria are separated by the ____ the ventricles are separated by ____ interatrial septum, interventricular septum
____valves permit blood flow in one direction, from the atria to the ventricles. They are folds of fibrous tissue that extend into the openings between the atria and ventricles atrioventricular
the right atrium receives blood from? superior and inferior venae cavae, ask from cardiac veins
the ___ closes at birth foramen ovale
the anterior atrial wall and the inner surface of the auricle contain prominent muscular ridges called the ___ pectinate muscle
the left atrium receives blood from the ___ pulmonary veins
The wall of the right ventricle is thinner than the left because ...
___ valve permits the flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle and prevents back flow during contraction. Contains a "pair of cusps. C left atrioventricular
the left atrioventricular aka ____ Clinicians often call this valve the ____ valve bicuspid valve, mitral
the ____ are a series of muscular ridges on the inner surfaces of the right and left ventricles trabeculae carneae
blood leaves the left ventricle by passing through the ___ valve aortic
the ___ provides a rapid conduction path that tenses the papillary muscles before the ventricular myocardium contracts, prevents the "slamming" of the right AV cusps moderator band
blood travels from the right atrium into the right ventricle though a broad opening bounded by the ____ aka ___ right atrioventricular valve, tricuspid valve
the free edge of each valve consists of 3 flaps, or ___ attached to tendinous connective tissue fibers called _____ cusps, chordae tendineae
the fibers of the chord tendineae originate at conical muscular projections called _____ muscles papillary
blood leaving the right ventricle passes through the ___. pulmonary valve
the function of the atrium is to _____ and convey it to the ____ collect blood that is "returning" to the heart, attached ventricle
the right ventricle has a ___ wall and the left ventricle has a ___ wall thin, thick
the right ventricle has a thin wall because 1. the right ventricle does not need to work very hard to push blood through the pulmonary circuit 2. the pulmonary vessels are relatively short and wide
the left ventricle has a "thick" muscular wall because it must develop 4-6 times as much pressure to push blood around the SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
the left ventricle push blood around the ___ circuit and the right ventricle pushes blood around the ____ circuit systemic, pulmonary
what happens when the left ventricle contracts? 1. diameter of the ventricular chamber decreases 2. distance between the base and apex decreases
an individual whose right ventricular musculature has been severely damaged may still survive because the contraction of the left ventricle helps push blood into the pulmonary circuit
the mechanism that moves blood very efficiently with minimal effort, but develops relatively low pressures right ventricular contraction
_____ in the pulmonary and systemic circuit keep the aortic and pulmonary valves closed until the ventricles ____ blood pressure, contract
when the ventricles contract, blood moving back toward the atria pushes the ______ cusps of the AV valves together, closing them and preventing back flow
when ventricles contract, blood moving toward the atria pushes the cusps of the AV valves together, closing them and preventing back flow. At the same time, the contraction of the _____ muscles tenses the _____, stoping the cusps papillary muscles, chordae tendineae
____ are saclike dilations adjacent to each cusp of the aortic valve, the right and left coronary arteries originate here aortic sinuses
the heart valves, bases of pulmonary trunk and aorta are encircled and supported by flexible connective tissues known as the ____ cardiac skeleton
___ stabilize positions of the heart valves and ventricular muscle cells and isolate the ventricular myocardium for the arterial myocardium cardiac skeleton
the pulmonary and aortic valves each consist of three ____ cusps of thick CT. semilunar
unlike the AV valves, the semilunar vales DO NOT require ______, because the cusps are stable. When the semilunar valves close the threes symmetrical cusps support one another like the legs of a ___ muscular braces, tripod
If the chord tendineae are cut of the papillary muscles are damaged, what happens? back flow "regurgitation" of blood into the atria occurs each time the ventricles contract
valve problems may interfere with cardiac function, if valve function deteriorates to the point which the heart cannot maintain adequate blood flow, symptoms of ____ appear valvular heart disease
what are the causes of valvular heart disease ? How would u repair the problem? congenital malformations and carditis, replace with prosthetic valve
____ valve is an example of an artificial valve that uses the cusps from a pigs heart bioprosthetic valve
What occurs when the left ventricle contracts? The distance between the base and apex decreases.
Which is true regarding coronary function? The semilunar valves close before the AV valves open.
the most common form of arteriosclerosis tends to develop in people whose blood contains elevated levels of ____. Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ___ of all deaths in the US plasma lipids specifically cholesterol, half
what are the risk factors for athrosclerosis ? elderly man, high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking
treatments for atherosclerosis ? removing dmg segment of vessel and replacing it with a superficial vein from leg
ballon angioplasty is most effective in treating ___ small, soft plaques
factors that make balloon angioplasty attractive are 1. mortality rate during surgery 1% 2. success rate is over 90% 3. procedure can be performed on an OP basis
____ generally results from partial or complete blockage of the coronary arteries. This causes a reduction in circulatory supply. The usual cause of this is ___ coronary ischemia, formation of aterosclerotic plaque
scans to view arteries in the heart digital subtraction angiography (DSA),
fine wire mesh inserted into the vessel to hold it open____ stent
stents are routinely used by many cardiac specialist because ? long-term success rate and complications are lower than ballon angioplasy
Created by: btuehara