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Oral Path II Test 2

Oral Pathology Test 2

what are Premalignant lesions? epithelial dysplasia (abnormal cells before they are cancerous, if they leave the epithelium they are caner)
what is Leukoplakia? white plaque which will not rub off and which cannot be diagnosed as a specific disease (always premalignant)
what is Frictional keratosis? physiologic reaction to physical irritation, not pre-malignant
what is the primary etiology of most leukoplakia? tobacco
what is Stomatitis nicotina? keratotic palate with red dots- not premalignant pipe smokers, inflamed salivary glands
what is the mouth lined with? stratified squamous epithelium
what is Hyperparakeratosis? increased amount of parakeratin on surface of epithelium (no dysplasia)
what is Hyperorthokeratosis increased amount of orthokeratin on the surface of epithelium (no dysplasia)
what is most Orthokeratin most mature type of epithelium with no nucleus in it
what is Acanthosis increase in thickness of epithelium
what is Epithelial dysplasia process the epithelium goes through prior to becoming malignant as determined by cytologic alterations of the cells
what is Carcinoma in Situ worse case for a pre-malignant cell before it becomes cancerous, cells are malignant but still in the epithelium
what are the high risk sites for oral cancer? Floor of the mouth/ventral tongue Lateral border of tongue Lower lip (actinic keratosis)
What makes it a non-homogenous leukoplakia? Areas of redness, ulceration, pebbly, bumpy verrucous areas
is Size a predictor of dysplasia? NO
what is Erythroplakia? red plaque which cannot be diagnosed as any specific disease or condition (always pre-malignant)
what is the cancer that arises in the oral cavity called? Squamous cell carcinoma
what ages are affected by oral cancer? Peak age incidence is 50-70 years increasing in age of 70 year olds and 40 year olds women are at higher risker at developing at a younger age
do people who smoke cigars or pipes have a decrease incidence of oral cancer? no, decreased incidence of lung cancer
what is the risk for alcohol abusers when compared to smoking? Risk is greater than 2 pack per day for smokers
what constitutes alcohol abuse? A total of 6 alcohol equivalents per day
how much are alcohol equivalents? One shot (1.5 OZ) hard liquor One glass (6 OZ) wine One glass/can (12 OZ) beer
Heavy smoking and minimum drinking has an increase of what for oral cancer X8
Heavy drinking and minimum smoking has an increase of what for oral cancer? x23
what are the Factors that degrade the immune system lead to increased cancer incidence Aging: immune system becomes degraded Chronic nutritional deficiency Disease states Therapeutic intervention
what are the genetic defects associated with oral cancer? Basal cell nevus syndrome Gardner’s syndrome
Only ?% of US adults can correctly identify an early warning sign of oral cancer 25%
Only ?% of US adults know the risk of alcohol abuse 13%
Only ?% of US adults have had an oral cancer exam 14%
what does an ulcer look like? Often with a raised, rolled border Often with a very deep, central crater
what are the sites that are immune to oral cancer? Dorsum of the tongue is very rarely affected Anterior portion of the hard palate is relatively immune
what causes Impetigo? (organisms) streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
what does impetigo look like? Vesicles that rupture leaving amber-colored crusts
if left untreated, strep throat can progress to what? scarlet fever, rheumatic fever
what does scarlet fever look like? Skin rash, palatal petechiae, “strawberry tongue”
what does Rheumatic fever involve? Affects heart, joints (Rheumatoid arthritis), central nervous system
what organism causes tuberculosis? Mycobacterium tuberculosis
what does scrofula mean? Lymph node involvement
where is tuberculosis found in the oral cavity? Tongue and palate have ulcerations
what is Actinomyces israelii? Normal inhabitants of oral cavity, only becomes a disease if it is allowed to grow in an area with a history of surgery
what does Actinomyces israelii look like? yellow “sulphur granules”
what organism causes syphilis? Treponema Pallidum
what is the incidence of syphilis in the united states? In the united states there is a 100X incidence compared to the rest of the world
What are the stages of syphilis? primary:chancre secondary: mucous patch generally on hands and feet latent: nothing tertiary: gumma
what is gumma in tertiary stage of syphilis characterized by? Chronic inflammation that destroys tissue Atrophic glossitis: dorsal tongue covered by white film (syphilitic leukoplakia)
what is the Hutchinson Triad in congenital syphilis? Screwdriver shaped “Hutchinson’s incisors” Mulberry molars
what is Pericoronitis? Inflammation of the mucosa around the crown of a partially erupted or impacted tooth
what is Chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis? bone becomes dense in certain areas
what are the Predisposing conditions for candidias? Antibiotic therapy Cancer chemotherapy Corticosteroid therapy Dentures Diabetes mellitus Pregnancy Iron deficiency Newborns Advanced malignancy Xerostomia Other immunocompromised states (HIV/AIDS
what are the conditions of Pseudomembranous candidiasis? can be wiped off, burning sensation or metallic taste
what is Chronic atrophic candidiasis? Denture stomatitis, follows the outline of the prosthesis, red lesion
what is the Only fungal organism associated with pre-malignancy Chronic hyperplastic
what is Median rhomboid glossitis Erythematous, rhomboid (diamond shaped) area at midline of dorsal tongue
what type of virus is the human papiloma virus? DNA virus
what are the three most common forms of human papiloma virus? Verruca vulgaris, Papilloma, Condyloma acuminatum
what type of virus is the Condyloma acuminatum STD
what virus is associated with the common wart? human papilloma virus, verruca vulgaris
what are Koilocytes HPV viral alteration, clearing out of cytoplasm
what do Papillomas look like? White/red/normal color “cauliflower” shaped exophytic nodule
what do Condyloma acuminatum look like Pink exophytic mass with short, blunted surface projections
what population is Heck’s disease most found in in Native Americans and Eskimos
HHV 1 usually causes... oral lesions
HHV 2 usually causes... genital lesions
Created by: Chobchi
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