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68C Med. Term. A&PII

68C Medical Terminology A&P II Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary

TermDefinition
Abduction (Skeletal System Vocab) moving away from the midline of the body
Adduction (Skeletal System Vocab) moving toward the midline of the body
Articular cartilage (Skeletal System Vocab) A thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis
Circumduction (Skeletal System Vocab) the process of moving the distal end of a body part in a circular path
Compact bone (Skeletal System Vocab) dense bone
Diaphysis (Skeletal System Vocab) shaft of a long bone
Endosteum (Skeletal System Vocab) a fibrous membrane that lines the medullary cavity
Epiphyseal plate (Skeletal System Vocab) the cartilage plate that is between the epiphysis and the diaphysis and allows growth to occur; sometimes referred to as a growth plate
Epiphyses (Skeletal System Vocab) the ends of the bone
Extension (Skeletal System Vocab) Increasing the angle between two bones at a joint
Flexion (Skeletal System Vocab) act of bending; decreasing the angle between two bones at the joint
Fontanel (Skeletal System Vocab) “soft spots” on the infant’s head; unossified areas in the infant skull
Hematopoiesis (Skeletal System Vocab) blood cell formation
Medullary cavity (Skeletal System Vocab) The hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone; contains soft yellow bone marrow
Olecranon Fossa (Skeletal System Vocab) a large depression on the posterior surface of the humerus
Osteoblasts (Skeletal System Vocab) bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts (Skeletal System Vocab) bone absorbing cells
Osteocytes (Skeletal System Vocab) Living bone cells
Osteon (Skeletal System Vocab) structural unit of compact bond tissue made up of concentric layers (lamellae) of hard bone matrix and bone cells; also called Haversian system
Periosteum (Skeletal System Vocab) tough connective tissue covering the bone
Sinus (Skeletal System Vocab) a space or cavity inside some of the cranial bones
Spongy bone (Skeletal System Vocab) porous bone in the end of the long bone; may be filled with marrow
Suture (Skeletal System Vocab) an immovable joint
Actin (Muscular System Vocab) contractile protein found in the thin myofilaments of skeletal muscle
All or None (Muscular System Vocab) when stimulated, a muscle fiber will contract fully or not at all; whether a contraction occurs depends on whether the stimulus reaches the required threshold
Antagonist (Muscular System Vocab) those having opposing actions; for example, muscles that flex the upper arm are antagonists to muscles that extend it.
Aponeuroses (Muscular System Vocab) broad fibrous sheets of connective tissue
Atrophy (Muscular System Vocab) wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of a part; sometimes referred to as disuse atrophy
Bursa (Muscular System Vocab) synovial fluid filled sac located between some tendons and bones, making movement easier
Hypertrophy (Muscular System Vocab) increase in size, structure, or function
Isometric (Muscular System Vocab) type of muscle contraction in which the muscle does not shorten or produce movement; (equal measure)
Isotonic (Muscular System Vocab) produces movement at a joint; muscle changes length
Myosin (Muscular System Vocab) contractile protein found in the thick myofilaments of skeletal muscle
Prime mover (Muscular System Vocab) the muscle mainly responsible for producing a particular movement
Sarcomere (Muscular System Vocab) contractile unit of muscle; length of a myofibril between two Z bands
Synergist (Muscular System Vocab) muscle that assists the prime mover
Tenosynovitis (Muscular System Vocab) inflammation of the tendon sheath
Abduction (body mechanics) movement of an extremity away from the midline of the body
Adduction (body mechanics) movement of an extremity toward the midline of the body
Alignment (body mechanics) relationship of various body parts to one another
Base of support (body mechanics) area on which an object rests; a stance with feet slightly apart
Body mechanics (body mechanics) physiologic study of the muscular actions and the functions of muscles in maintaining posture of the body
Compartment syndrome (body mechanics) occurs in the extremities, especially the legs, where a sheath of inelastic fascia partitions the blood vessel, nerve, and muscle tissue, leading to tissue necrosis if not relieved
Contractures (body mechanics) abnormal, usually permanent condition of a joint characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by atrophy
Dorsal (supine) (body mechanics) lying horizontal on the back
Dorsal recumbent (body mechanics) supine position with patient lying on back, head and shoulders with extremities moderately flexed and legs extended
Dorsiflexion (body mechanics) bending or flexing backward, as in upward bending of the fingers, wrists, feet and toes
Extension (body mechanics) movement of joint that increases the angle between two adjoining bones
Flexion (body mechanics) movement of certain joints that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones
Fowler's position (body mechanics) a position arranged by elevating the head of the bed 45-60 degrees
Genupectoral (knee to chest) (body mechanics) patient kneels so weight of body is supported by knees and chest
Hyperextension (body mechanics) extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit
Immobility (body mechanics) inability to move around freely, caused by any condition in which movement is impaired or therapeutically restricted
Joint (body mechanics) any one of the connections between bones
Lateral position (body mechanics) when patient is resting on his/her side
Lithotomy (body mechanics) patient lying supine with the hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted and rotated externally
Logroll (body mechanics) technique used to turn a patient in bed as a single unit while maintaining straight body alignment
Mobility (body mechanics) the ability to move in one’s environment with ease and without restriction
Necrosis (body mechanics) local death of tissue from disease or injury
Orthopnea (body mechanics) the ability to breathe only in the upright position
Orthopneic (body mechanics) pertains to the posture assumed by the patient sitting up in bed at a 90 degree angle
Physical disuse syndrome (body mechanics) a state in which an individual is at risk for deterioration of body systems as the result of prescribed or unavoidable inactivity
Pivot (body mechanics) turn or change of direction with your feet while remaining in a fixed place
Pressure ulcer (body mechanics) an ulcer that forms from a local interference with circulation
Pronation (body mechanics) palm of the hand turned down
Prone position (body mechanics) when the patient is lying face down
Range of motion (body mechanics) normal movement that any given joint is capable of making. Any body action involving the muscles joints and natural directional movement
Semi-Fowler's position (body mechanics) position arranged by elevating the head of the bed approximately 30 degrees
Shearing force (body mechanics) an applied force that causes a downward and forward pressure on the tissues beneath the skin. (Def in Ch. 18 Hygiene and Skin, p. 448, Foundations)
Sim's position (body mechanics) patient lies on on left side, partially on abdomen, with right knee and thigh drawn upward toward chest
Supination (body mechanics) the act of turning the palm of the hand forward or upward
Supine position (body mechanics) resting on back
Apocrine gland (Integumentary System Vocab) type of gland whose secretions contain parts of secretory cells
Arrector pili muscle (Integumentary System Vocab) smooth muscle in skin associated with a hair follicle
Basement membrane (Integumentary System Vocab) layer of extracellular matrix that anchors epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue.
Collagen (Integumentary System Vocab) protein in connective tissue and in bone matrix
Cutaneous (Integumentary System Vocab) pertaining to the skin
Dermis (Integumentary System Vocab) thick layer of the skin beneath the epidermis
Eccrine (Integumentary System Vocab) sweat gland that maintains body temperature
Epidermis (Integumentary System Vocab) outer stratified squamous epithelial layer of the skin
Hair follicle (Integumentary System Vocab) tubelike depression in the skin in which a hair develops
Integumentary system (Integumentary System Vocab) the skin and accessory organs
Keratin (Integumentary System Vocab) protein in epidermis, hair and nails
Keratinization (Integumentary System Vocab) process by which cells form fibrils of keratin protein and harden
Melanin (Integumentary System Vocab) dark pigment normally found in skin and hair
Melanocytes (Integumentary System Vocab) melanin-producing cell
Sebaceous gland (Integumentary System Vocab) skin gland that secretes sebum
Subcutaneous (Integumentary System Vocab) beneath the skin
Sweat (sudoriferous) gland (Integumentary System Vocab) exocrine gland in skin that secretes a mixture of water, salt, urea and other bodily wastes
Bedpan (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) device for receiving feces and urine from either male or female patients confined to bed
Canthus (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) corner of the eye
Cerumen (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) ear wax
Chux (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) waterproof pads
Circumorbital (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) circular area around the eye
Dentures (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) artificial teeth
Diaphoresis (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) sweating
Erythema (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) redness
Hygiene (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) science of health; care of the skin, hair, hands, feet, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, back and perineum
Medical Asepsis (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) clean technique
Microorganism (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) tiny plants and animals seen through the microscope
Oral hygiene (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) care of the oral cavity that helps maintain a healthy state of the mouth, teeth, gums and lips.
Pathogenic (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) disease-producing microorganisms
Perineal care (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) care of the genitals
Prone (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) lying on the abdomen
Range of Motion (ROM) (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) normal movement that any joint is capable of making
Sim's' Position (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) side lying
Supine (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) lying face up
Syncope (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) fainting
Urinal (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) device for collecting urine
Vertigo (Skin & Hygiene Vocab) dizziness
Threshold Stimulus (Muscular System) the minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract
Twitch (Muscular System) contractions that are a quick, jerky movement and do not play a significant role in normal muscular activity; they are a single contraction of muscle fibers caused by a single threshold stimulus
Tetanic contractions (Muscular System) Sustained and steady muscular contractions caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession
4 Abdominal Muscles (Muscular System) External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transverse Abdominis, Rectus Abdominis
3 Hamstring Muscles (Muscular System) Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris
4 Quadricep Muscles (Muscular System) Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis, Vastus intermedius
4 Types of Bones (Skeletal System) Long, short, flat, irregular
2 Types of Bone Formation/Growth (Skeletal System) Intramembranous, Endochondral
3 Types of Ribs (Skeletal System) True ribs- 7 rib pairs False ribs- 5 rib pairs Floating ribs- Rib pairs 11, and 12
Sternum, and its 3 portions (Skeletal System) Located midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cage Manubrium: The top portion. Body: The middle portion Xiphoid Process: The bottom portion
Pectoral Girdle (Skeletal System) The shoulder bone formation
Hand Bones (Skeletal System) Composed of 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, and 5 sets of phalanges
Carpal Bones (Skeletal System) Set of bones in the hand that articulates with the fibrocartilaginous disc on the ulnar side, and the radius.
Metacarpal Bones (Skeletal System) Articulates proximally with the carpals and distally with the phalanges
Phalanges (Skeletal System) Articulates proximally with the Metacarpals
Created by: mdlavin