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External Oblique raises intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressure; compresses abdominal contents
Internal Oblique aids the externa obliques and may aid forced exhalation
Transversus Abdominus aids the externa obliques and may aid forced exhalation
Rectus Abdominus assists in compression of the abdomen, flexes lumbar vertebrae
Pyramidalis may not exist in some people. anterior to the lowermost part of the rectus.
Quadratus Lumborum May be active in exhalation; anchors lower 2 ribs
Illiacus may aid in exhalation
Psoas Major, Psoas Minor May aid in exhalation
sternocleidomastoid with head anchored, may raise the sternum and clavicle.
Scalenus Anterior Raises first rib
Scalenus Medius Raises first rib
Scalenus Posterior Raises second rib
Trapezius Rotates scapula, raises shoulder, turns head and tilts it backward
Latissimus Dorsi Extends, adducts, rotates arms medially; may influence the lower 3 or 4 ribs
Rhomboids Draws scapula toward spinal column, adducts the arm
Levator Scapulae Elevates and anchors the scapula
Diaphragm Primary muscle of inhalation
Internal Intercostals Aids in increasing thoracic volume, but may also assist in exhalation
External Intercostals With upper ribs anchored, the lower ribs are elevated
Subcostals Action not fully understood, may be partially exhalatory
Levator Costarum Brevis Elevates the lower posterior ribs, increasing volume
Levator Costarum Longus Elevates the lower posterior ribs, increasing volume
Serratus Posterior Superior Possibly elevates the ribs
Serratus Posterior Inferior Exerts a downward force on lower ribs during forced inhalation
Lateral Iliocostalis May influence rib movements during respiration. Starts at illium and goes up and fans out.
Longissimus Dorsi Medial to Lateral iliocostalis. Goes straight up the backbone (lateral & parallel to vertebrae).
Pectoralis Major fan shaped. Rotation of the arm.
Pectoralis Minor Deep & smaller than major. Extends the shoulder.
Subclavius Below clavicle and runnning parallel to clavicle. Draws the shoulder forward and slightly downward.
Serratus Anterior Has a serrated (jagged) apperance. Anchors and protracts the scapula.
Created by: bertaka



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