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Research Meth Test 1

Research Methods Test 1

QuestionAnswer
what is the definition of research? continual search for truth using the scientific method
what are the purposes of research? promote oral health contribute new knowledge or reevaluate current knowledge
what is the scientific method? series of standardized procedures to increase the likelihood that gathered information is relevant, reliable and unbiased
what are the steps of scientific method? define a problem pose an answer to the problem (hypothesis) collect data analyze date conclusion regarding the hypothesis accept or reject hypothesis
what is the independent variable? what are you changing Independent variable is the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate
what is the dependent variable? what you are measuring Dependent variable is what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment
what is the extraneous variables? what you are trying to control What you are trying to control so you aren’t comparing two different things
what is the research process? critically valuate what has been done and researched build a case for why the research needs to be done hypothesis in null form research design methods, data collection, analysis, conclusions
what is fundamental research? simply for the sake of knowledge
what is applied research? to solve or resolve a problem has a clinical application
what is epidemiology research? studies health related states in population
what is a prevalence study in epidemiology? number of cases at a specific point in time
what is a incidence study in epidemiology? number of new case over a period of time
what is an observational study? no intervention by the experimenter may establish an association or correlation between two factors: not cause and effect
what is a case study? one individual who has interesting case
what is a cross sectional study? one point in time Looking at a population at one point in time
what is a case control study? Looking back at something such as faulty implants and what happened to them
what is a cohort study? Looking forward, over an extended amount of time
what is an experimental research study? investigator manipulates one or more independent variable observes the dependent variable to determine effect of independent variable
what are the purposes of experimental study? investigate cause and effect generalize findings to a related setting outside of the experimental setting
which study has a high probability of assessing causality? experimental
what review has the highest level of evidence? systematic reviews
what are the features of a good design maximize objectivity, min bias controls errors max occurrence of variables under study guides the selection of stat methods provides for meaningful interpretation
what does X mean experimental or independent variable
what does Y mean dependent variable measure
what does Y1 mean measurement prior to X, baseline
what does Y2 mean measurement after X
what does R mean use of random selection for sample groups
what does C mean control group
what does E mean experimental group
what is the one group pretest-posttest design Give group a pretest before a lecture, give the lecture, give the group a post test to measure how much you know Does not control for those who might know some information before hand
what is one group time series design? time series design, measures over time
what is randomized subjects pretest-posttest design? most common research design Pretest, experiment or no experiment for control, posttest data
what is randomized subjects posttest only design Eliminates pre test effect, just do therapy and posttest Pretest can actually skew the posttest because people learn from it
what is the solomon three group design? Addition of a third group of nonpretested people who also receives the experimental treatment. This control group allows the researcher to assess for the pretest and for pretest treatment interactions effects
what is the solomon four group design? Combines the randomized group pretest- posttest design with the randomized group posttest only design
what is factorial design more than one independent arable allows observation of main effects and of interactions
what is causality? experimental designs are most controlled and least biased never established on the basis of one experiment
what is internal validity: the degree to which the independent variable (experimental conditions) brings about change in the dependent variable (what is measured)
what is statistical regression? extreme scores move towards the middle, randomly assign extreme scores to both experimental and control groups
what is external validity? the degree to which the study accurately reflects events which would occur in real situation, the extent to which the research results can be generalized to other populations
what is the Hawthorne effect? not measuring what you want to measure, population is not behaving as the general population would
as internal validity increases...what happens to external validity? decreases application of findings to a real situation may be limited
in subject relevant, simple randomization... does not eliminate variables
Created by: Chobchi