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Oral Path Test 1

Oral Pathology Test 1

QuestionAnswer
what does familial mean? runs in families but not directly inherited
what does congenital mean? present at birth does not imply genetic
what is aplasia with out development
what does hypoplasia mean? under development
what are the features that suggest something is developmental? young age or present at birth asymptomatic bilateral symmetry
what are syndromes? combinations of findings which define a condition
what is agnathia? no jaw
what is micrognathia? small jaw
what is macrognathia? large jaw
how do you treat cleft lip and palate? treat lip lesions early palate have to wait until the child is ready to speak
what are fordyce granules? sebaceous glands yellowish plaques that secrete a fatty substance not seen in children
what is hereditary fibromatosis gingivae? autosomal dominant and inherited generalized gingival hyperplasia
what are the three things that can cause generalized gingival hyperplasia? medications, hereditary, syndromes
what is aglossia? no tongue
what is microglossia? small tongue
what is ankyloglossia? fusion of tongue to the floor of the mouth
what does it mean to be tongue tied? lingual frenum is too far attached
what is cleft tongue? lack of complete fusion of lateral halves
what is fissured tongue? NOT DEVELOPMENTAL age related deep grooves that occasionally related to xerostomia
what is benign migratory glossitis? geographic tongue or erythema migrans atrophic red areas with yellowish white borders
what causes hairy tongue? elongated filiform papillae caused by drugs, radiation, smoking NOT DEVELOPMENTAL
what is Stafney's bone cavity? submandibular salivary gland, radiolucency corticated borders below the inferior alveolar canal
what is microdontia? small teeth
what is macrodontia? large teeth
what is an enamel pearl? excess of enamel at bi or trifurcation of molars at the CEJ
what is gemination? division of tooth germ with incomplete formation of two teeth, tooth splits in two, almost always crown of the tooth usually single root split coronal
what is fusion of teeth? union of two tooth germs by dentin commonly has two roots
what is concrescence of teeth? fusion by cementum
what is a dilaceration of teeth? bend or curve, possibly from trauma
what is dens in dente? tooth within a tooth, shell of enamel and dentin inside tooth
what is taurodontism? block shaped teeth with large pulps
what are two reasons for taurodontism? phenotypic expression, development from ancestors Klinefelter's syndrome
what is anodontia? no teeth at all hereditary
what is partial anodontia or oligodontia? some but not all teeth are missing
what are the congenitally missing teeth? 3rd molars maxillary lateral premolars
what are mesiodens? between maxillary centrals and is most common
how can you tell if the enamel defect is hereditary? all teeth affected, both dentitions family history
how can you tell if the enamel defect is environmental? turns on and off, one dentition is affected no family history
what is amelogenesis imperfecta? inherited defect of ameloblast abnormal enamel created by ameloblasts autosomal dominant, recessive
what are the environmental defects for enamel? nutritional: calcium exanthematous: virus in your epithelium congenital syphilis local infection or trauma fluorosis, tetracycline
what is the exception of environmental enamel defect that will affect both dentitions? fluorosis
what is dentinogenesis imperfecta? inherited defect of odontoblasts autosomal dominant
what causes dental caries? formation of plaque, adherence of microorganisms to plaque, microorganisms ferment carbohydrates of the plaque, acid dissolves dental hard tissue
what are the microorganisms that adhere to plaque to cause cavities? streptococcus mutans lactobacillus
what do early lesions look like on the tooth? incipient caries lusterless or chalky appearing white spot which is produced by early demineralization of enamels
what do later lesions that turn into cavities look like? produce a depression, often discolored
where do cavities occur on teeth? pits and fissures, smooth enamel surfaces, root surfaces
what are the most common cavities? pit and fissure cavities
how do pit and fissure cavities look on a radiograph? diamond shape radiolucency
how do smooth surfaces look on a radiograph? double triangle
why do smooth surface caries appear mostly on the facial surfaces of teeth? because the height of contour is closer to the occlusal surface
what do root surface caries look like on the radiographs? triangle radiolucency
how does a meth mouth look? black extensive decay focused initially around gingival line leaves on roots of teeth as it amputates crown dry mouth
what is pulpitis? inflammation involving the dental pulp this happens by dilation of the blood vessels
what causes pulpitis? caries, trauma, dental restorations
what is reversible pulpitis symptoms? pain mostly on cold, pain fades away after stimulus is removed pain is not always there or reproducible, radiographs appear normal
how do you treat reversible pulpitis? remove the cause if identifiable give the tooth time
what are the symptoms of irreversible pulpitis? pain typically lingers with removal of stimulation, varying degree of pain that increases with time, mostly hot produces pain and have percussion and chewing pressure pain.
what do radiographs show about irreversible pulpitis? slight widening of the periodontal ligament, inflammation in the pulp
what is the treatment for pulpitis? endodontic therapy or extraction
what is pulp necrosis? death of pulp tissue due to overwhelming inflammation in a confined environment
why does a tooth that undergoes pulp necrosis appear discolored? bleeding in pulp chamber spills red blood cells into dentinal tubules the breakdown causes hemosiderin or brown pigment
what does pulp necrosis look like radiographically? thickening of the periodontal ligament area and destruction of bone in periodical region
what is chronic hyper plastic pulpitis? pulp polyp, large carious lesions with exposure of the pulp pulp grows out from inside the tooth to produce red soft tissue mass in the crown area
what are iatrogenic? mistakes or injuries produced by healthcare professionals
what are factorial lesions? self induced and may have psychogenic component patients do these themselves, nervous habit
what is frictional keratosis? most common lesion, physically rubbing on your tissue protective phenomenon that your surface epithelium will make keratin usually a white plaque
what is morsicatio bucarum? cheek biting
what is a traumatic ulcer? most common cause of intraoral ulceration loss of surface epithelium from physical injury tan: covered by fibrinous exudate
where are the most common places to find traumatic ulcers? tongue and lower lip
what is a traumatic granuloma? traumatic ulcer with injury to underlying muscle doesn't heal, ulcers that don't go away, most common on tongue
what is a amalgam tattoo? slate bluish gray discoloration from traumatic implantation of amalgam producing subsurface discoloration
what is a hematoma? bite yourself and break a blood vessel so blood leaks out extravascular bleeding onto tissue
what are petechiae? pinpoint bleeding from capillaries
what do we see in acute radiation therapy? dermatitis/stomatitis
what do we see in chronic radiation therapy? salivary glands sensitive, decreased salivary flow dryness and discomfort, burning that may lead to candidosis difficulty eating, speaking and swallowing increased cervical caries
what is osteoradionecrosis? bone breaks down, radiation damages osteocytes very prone to infection
what do burns in oral mucosa look like? white
what are the medications that cause generalized gingival hyperplasia? phenytoin (Dilantin) cyclosporine calcium channel blockers
what is type I hypersensitivity? IgE mediated, histamine potent vasodilator red lesions on skin causing anaphylaxis
what is type IV hypersensitivity? delayed hypersensitivity T cell mediated white lesions
what is angioedema? lip swelling
what is stomatitis medicamentosa? swallowing something and you react to it systemically
what is stomatitis venenata? put something inside your mouth and react to it topically
what does a cinnamon allergy look like? red and white combination lesion increased desequamative gingivitis
what is attrition? loss of tooth structure occlusally and interproximally due to direct tooth to tooth contact
what is physiological attrition? eating, tooth to tooth contact
what is pathological attrition? bruxism, non functional habits
why does inter proximal attrition happen? because the teeth move normally in the bone
what is abrasion? loss of tooth structure from mechanical habit
what is the most common form of abrasion? cervical abrasion caused by horizontal brushing most apparent in canine and premolar area presents as a V shape in cervical area of the tooth
what is erosion? loss of tooth structure from chemical process, most often non-bacterial acid dissolution intrinsic or extrinsic, looks like polished surface with sharp edge of enamel
what is perimylosys? erosion of teeth due to gastric secretions
what is the pattern for erosion for eating disorders? palatal surfaces of the maxillary later surfaces but not any other teeth
why does erosion not happen on mandibular teeth? protected by tongue and saliva pools in the floor of the mouth
what is abfraction? loss of tooth structure due to repeated tooth flexure caused by occlusal stress always found in cervical third
what is demastication? combined effect of attrition and abrasion
what is secondary dentin? physiologic deposition of dentin throughout life formed after root completion, responsible for making pulp chamber smaller
what is reparative dentin? localized formation of dentin on pulp formed under pathological conditions: injury
what are dead tracts? dentinal tubules devoid of cytoplasmic processes of odontoblasts dentin is beyond repair
what makes up physiological dentin? primary and secondary dentin
what causes pulp calcifications? denticles, pulp stones, diffuse linear calcifications
what is hypercementosis? abnormal thickening of cementum
what causes localized hypercementosis? inflammation, excessive occlusion, fracture, loss of antagonist, idopathic
what causes generalized hypercementosis? Paget's disease of bone
what are cementicles? calcifications in PDL
what can cause pathologic external resorption of roots? pager's disease of bone
what is pink tooth of mummery indicate? internal resorption, inflammed pulp
what is a tumor? swelling or inflammation
what is a neoplasm? abnormal mass of tissue growth which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue
what is pyogenic? pus forming
what is a granuloma? microscopic aggregation of macrophages that are transformed into epithelia cells
what is hyperplasia? increase in the size of an organ associated with an increase in the number of cells
what is a hamartoma? excessive but focal overgrowth of cells and tissues native to the organ in which it occurs
what causes a fibroma? local irritation or trauma can occur in any location, usually older individuals
what does a fibroma look like? smooth surfaced pink nodule
what is another name for inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia? eulis fissuratium or denture epulis
where does inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia develop? flange of an ill fitting denture folds of tissue in the alveolar vestibule
what does an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia look like? firm fibrous tissue, can be ulcerated most commonly in females
what are the two that occur on the gingiva only? peripheral ossifying fibroma peripheral giant cell granuloma
where is it common to see peripheral ossifying fibroma? young patients, mostly female
what causes peripheral giant cell granulomas? local irritation and trauma
what does a peripheral giant cell granuloma look like? red blue or red nodular mass occurring only in the soft tissue
what population does a pyogenic granuloma occur in? children, young adults and pregnant women
what does a pyogenic granuloma look like? smooth lobulated mass, pedunculated or sessile, bleeds a lot ulcerated pink or red purple
what is a hemangioma? benign tumor of blood vessels most common in head and neck region
what does a hemangioma appear like? blue or reddish blue
what is a lymphangioma? benign tumor of lymphatic vessels occurring in the head and neck region most common on the tongue
what does a lymphangioma look like? tapioca pudding or frog egg appearance
what causes inflammatory papillary hyperplasia? ill fitting, poor denture hygiene, wearing denture 24 hours a day found mostly below the denture
what causes a verruciform xanthoma? response to localized epithelial trauma or damage
what does a verruciform xanthoma look like? hyper plastic epithelial lesion found on the oral mucosa skin or genitialia white, yellow white or red in color, papillary verrucoid or flat topped surface
what causes traumatic neuroma? benign tumor, reactive prolieration of nerver tissue after injury or trauma
where is traumatic neuroma most commonly found? mental foramen area, tongue or lower lip pain or numbness
what are the most common tumor like proliferations? fibroma inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia peripheral ossifying fibroma peripheral giant cell granuloma pyogenic granuloma
what are the vascular lesions? hemangioma lymphangioma
Created by: Chobchi