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Developmental Anatomy deals with development of the organism from conception to adulthood
Gross Anatomy study of anatomy at the macroscopic level. Organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye
Microscopic Anatomy examines structures not visible to the naked eye
Comparative Anatomy studies structures of different living organisms, for comparison
Pathological Anatomy study of parts of the body with respect to the pathological entity
Applied Anatomy (Clinical Anatomy) application of anatomical study for diagnosis and treatment of disease (particularly surgery)
Discriptive Anatomy description of individual parts of the body without reference to disease conditions
Coronal Plane divides the body into front and back sections
Transverse Plane divides body into upper and lower sections
Sagittal Plane divides the body into a right and left
Planes/cuts can discuss "cuts/divisions" of the body in reference to those planes
Ventral away from the backbone
Anterior toward the front
Dorsal toward the back
Posterior toward the back
Cranial or Rostral toward the head
Caudal toward the tail, away from the head. Used only for trunk, not limbs.
Superficial toward/confined to the surface
Deep away from the surface; closer to the axis of the body
Inferior below, closer to the ground
Superior upper or above; farther from the ground
Medial toward the axis or midline
Lateral away from the axis or midline; or, related to the side
Proximal toward the body, or toward the root of a free extremity (of, nearest to the point of attachment)(Shoulder is more proximal than hand).
Distal away from the body, or away from the root of a free extremity (hands, legs, Your hand is more distal than your shoulder).
Peripheral toward the outer surface or part (arteries farther away from heart, more peripheral)
Central pertaining to or situated at the center (brain & spinal cord)
Prone on the belly
Supine on the back
Ipsilateral same side (affecting the same side of the body, right side controls the right side)
Contralateral opposite side (affecting the opposite side of the body, right side of brain controls left side of body.)
Axial Skeleton spinal column is the axis. Includes head and trunk. The spinal column is the "asix" of the axial skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton upper extremities and lower extremities
Flexion bending a joint
Extension opposite of flexion; pulling two ends father apart
Palmar refers to the palm of the hand
Pronated turning the palm of the hand inferiorly
Supination turning the palm of the hand superiorly
Plantar refers to the sole of the foot
Speech production involves coordinated action among 4 systems.. Respiratory Phonatory Articulatory Resonatory
Cells... form the building blocks of life, are living tissues, contain a nucleus, contain a variety of cellular material specialized to the function of the individual cell
4 basic types of tissue epithelial connective muscle nervous
Epithelial Tissue Provides a protective lining for the surface of the body. Lines the tubes and passages that lead from the interior of the body to the exterior. Lines the internal cavities of the body. Tightly packed, protective quality, may have cilia.
Connective tissue Connects or binds structures together. Provides support for the body. Can be solid, liquid, or gel like. Composed of intercellular material (known as the matrix)
Lymphoid (connective tissue type) makes up lymph tissue of tonsils, adenoids, and Llymph nodes
Loose connective tissue (areolar tissue) found between muscles & organs and has a supportive function
adipose tissue areolar tissue that contains a lot of fat cells also found between muscles and organs
White fibrous tissue tendons, ligament, fascia
Tendons always associated with a muscle, typically joins a muscle to a bone, cartilage, or another muscle. Very strong.
Ligament joins bone to bone. Also can bind cartilage to cartilage, or bone to cartilage.
fascia dense fibrous tissue. Usually surrounds muscles in a sheet like membrane.
cartilage tensile strength keeps the fibers from being easily separated when pulled
elastic cartilage found in the pinna, nose, and epigottis
Lateral Rotation rotate away from the midplane
circumduction a circular movement. ex: rolling the eyes
fibroblast they synthesize and secrete protein
macrophages "healing" connective tissues. Collect dead tissue (necrotic tissues). This is important in order to regenerate new tissue.
3 major types of joints synarthrodial, amphiarthrodial, diarthrodial
Synarthrodial immovable joints (fibrous joints). Ex: bones of the skull
Amphiarthrodial slightly movable, yielding joints. (cartilaginous joints)
Diarthrodial freely moving joints. (synovial joints-contain synovial fluid) Joints in hands, wrist, legs, shoulders.
Afferent (sensory) gives central nervous system information about the state of the muscle
Efferent (excitatory) the nerve tells the muscle to move
Types of muscles Striated, smooth, and cardiac muscle.
Striated (skeletal) striped appearance upon microscopic exam. Used to move skeletal structures. Known as voluntary muscles because it can be moved in response to a voluntary, conscious process
smooth muscle (visceral) include muscular tissue of the digestive tract, blood vessels, ect. Also outside of voluntary control.
cardiac muscle outside of voluntary control
paralelle muscels great range of motion,
radiating muscles fibers converge or diverge as they approach their insertion. less range of motion than parallel but more powerful.
pennate fibers converge on a tendon.
flexion bending of a part (clenched fist is flexed)
extension straightening
dorsiflexion Bending in the direction of the dorsum of the foot
plantar flexion bending in the direction of the sole of the foot
abduction movement away from the body
medial rotation rotate a member toward the midplane of the body
Meningeal linings provide protection for the brain. provide nutrition for the brain. hold structures in place during movement. Maintain brain in its fluid suspension.
Dura Mater 2 layers tightly bound together. is a tough structure that provides a barrier between bone of skull and delicate neural tissue. Is the tough superficial later.
Epidural hematoma a release of blood into the space between the 2 layers of the dura mater
Falx cerebri - sagittal separation separates 2 cerebral hemispheres down to the level of corpus callopsum
Falx cerebelli - sagittal divider separates right and left cerebellar hemispheres
Tentorium cerebelli - a transverse separation a "horizontal shelf." Divides cranium into superior (cerebral) and inferior (cerebellar) regions. Supports cerebrum and keeps its mass from compressing cerebellum and brainstem.
Sub(below)dural hematoma blood hemorrhages beneath the dura. Can push on cerebrum, causing temporal lobe to herniate under the tentorium or can push brainstem into foramen magnum.
diaphragma sella - transverse separation this supports the cerebrum and keeps its mass from compressing the cerebellum and brainstem
arachnoid mater lace like covering medial to the dura mater. Many blood vessels of brain pass through here. cerebrospinal fluid through here.
pia mater Thin membranous covering that closely follows contour of the brain. major arteries and veins serving the surface of the brain are within this layer.
spinal meningeal linings miningeal linings also line / cover the spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid provides a cushion for neural tissues, nutrient delivery, waste removal
Ventricles are the spaces within the brain where the CSF flows
Left & right lateral ventricles These 2 are bounded superiorly by corpus callosum and extend into each of the lobes of the cerebrum. produces the most CFS.
3rd ventricle between thalamus and hypothalamus (subcorical structures)
4th ventricle between brainstem and cerebellum
Choroid plexus in each ventricle, is a tissue that produces CFS.
How do ventricles circulate? Begins in each of the lateral ventricles. Then to the 3rd ventricle. Then to the 4th. Then drains into subarachnoid space and eventually circulates around brain and spinal cord. then, eventually is absorbed by the venous system.
Cerebrum Consists of 2 hemispheres called "cerebral cortex. Cortex means "bark" referring to the outer surface of the brain. is 2-4 mm thick.
Cerebral longitudinal fissure separates right and left cerebral hemispheres down to the level of the corpus callosum
Gyri (gyrus) convolutions or bulges
Sulci (sulcus) infoling calleys/grooves
fissures deeper, more pronounced grooves
Lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure) divides temporal lobe from frontal and anterior parietal lobe
Central sulcus (rolandic fissure) separates frontal and parietal lobes entirely
Frontal lobe Largest of the lobes. Responsible for planning, initiation of motor movement, inhibition, cognitive function. Is the anterior most part of the cortex. bounded posteriorly by the central sulcus.
Precentral gyrus (bump)(motor strip) immediately anterior to central sulcus. is the site of initiation of voluntary motor movement.
premotor region immediately anterior to pre central gyrus. involved in motor planning.
supplementary moror area Both the premotor area and supplementary motor area are a part of area 6 on brodman's map
Created by: 1651415596



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