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Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

evolution the change in allele frequency of a population over time [B]
natural selection the process by which organisms that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce (mechanism for evolution) [B]
adaptation a genetic variation (expressed as a trait) that is favored by selection in a particular environment [B}
species diversity the number of different species in a particular area [B]
limited resources less available food, water or space than is required by a population (above the carrying capacity) [B]
competition struggle for existence between organisms for mates or limited resources (winners are more fit, better adapted) [B]
genetic variation the difference in alleles or genes between organisms within the gene pool of a species [B]
mutation this change in DNA (nucleotide sequence) is the original source of variation [B]
genotype and phenotype 1) the 2 alleles (ex: Ww) for a trait 2) the expression of a trait (ex: widow's peak) [B]
speciation the formation of a new species following reproductive isolation (results in species diversity) [B]
evidence of evolution includes, but is not limited to fossil record, morphological homologies and DNA/protein similarities [B]
common ancestor an ancestral species shared by two or more species as evidenced by commonalities (can be shown on a phylogenetic tree or cladogram) [B]
genetic drift changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance (examples include a bottleneck and the founder effect) [BB]
radioactive dating a method of determining the age of fossils and rocks using half-lives of radioactive isotopes (example: carbon dating) [BB]
mutagen causes mutations in DNA (includes radiation, some metals and biological agents) [BB]
heterozygous advantage preserves variation in gene pools by greater reproductive success in heterozygotes over individuals homozygous for either of the associated alleles (example: sickle cell allele and malaria resistance) [BB]
reproductive isolation two populations whose members are distinct species since they are blocked from interbreeding and producing fertile offspring (example: geographical isolation) [BB]
gene pool the total collection of genes in a population at any one time [BB]
Charles Darwin an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory [BB]
evolutionary fitness for each individual this is measured by reproductive success due to use of inherited adaptations [BB]
extinction the end of life for all members of a species (a lack of genetic variation can increase the chance of this occurring) [BB]
morphological homologies similarity between two species in their form and structure of the whole organisms or their parts (including vestigial organs) [BB]
adaptive radiation the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment (often seen on islands) [BB]
Miller-Urey experiment showed the possibility of making complex organic molecules from inorganic molecules in the simulated conditions (as understood in 1953) of early Earth. [BB]
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium the absence of evolution if all of the following 5 conditions are true: large populations, no mutations, no migration, random mating and no selection [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
Hardy-Weinberg equations p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 and p + q = 1 [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
q allele frequency of the recessive allele (or second allele) in a population [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
p allele frequency of the dominant allele (or first allele) in a population [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
2pq the frequency of the heterozygous genotype in a population [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
p2 the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype in a population [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
q2 the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype in a population [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
allele frequency The proportion of a particular allele in a population (written as a decimal) [Lab: Mathematical Modeling]
artificial selection The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits. [Lab: Artificial Selection]
bar graph uses rectangles of different heights to characterize data that is categorical (example: # of plants with different ranges of trichomes) [Lab: Artificial Selection]
trichomes hair-like structures found on plants (functions include, defense, lowering plant temperature and water absorption) [Lab: Artificial Selection]
directional selection a type of natural selection for a multigenic trait that favors individuals on one end of the phenotypic range (graphically shown as shift to the left or right) [Lab: Artificial Selection]
inherited trait a trait or characteristic that is passed through DNA from one generation to the next [Lab: Artificial Selection]
life cycle The entire sequence of stages in the life of an organism, from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next [Lab: Artificial Selection]
generation all individuals of a species born and living at about the same time (examples: P, F1, F2, etc.), [Lab: Artificial Selection]
BLAST a program that searches for regions of similarity between a biological sequence (DNA or proteins) and a genome database of many species [Lab: BLAST]
cladogram phylogenetic tree that branches repeatedly, suggesting a classification of organisms based on the time sequence in which evolutionary branches arise. [Lab: BLAST]
derived characteristics a trait that is shared by organisms with a recent common ancestor. (can be listed on a cladogram) [Lab: BLAST]
morphological characteristics traits that refer to structure or form such as shape, length or color of the body [Lab: BLAST]
DNA comparison a percent comparison of the DNA code of genes between two different species (can use BLAST) [Lab: BLAST]
protein comparison a percent comparison of the proteins between two different species (can use BLAST) [Lab: BLAST]
nucleotide sequence the order of the nucleotides (A,G,T and C) within a gene [Lab: BLAST]
Created by: cfigueiredo
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