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Wiles--Cell Review

Wiles--Module 7--Cellular Structure

What is the definition of a cell? Basic unit of life
What three scientists are given credit for stating the cell theory? Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow
What was the name of the substance inside a rbc that carries oxygen? Hemoglobin
What are the most numerous organelles in a cell? Ribosomes
What is the largest cell in the human body? Ovum (egg cell)
Who first used the word "cell" while looking at slices of cork under a microscope? Robert Hooke
What is the function of ribosomes? Synthesize or produce protein
Humans are referred to as ____ since they are made of many cells? Multicellular
What is the study of cells called? Cytology
What are the folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion called? Cristae
What organelles are often called "suicide sacs"? Lysosomes
What does organelle literally mean? little organ
A group of cells that live together in close association for a common existence makes a(n) ___. Colony
What process takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells? Photosynthesis
What material is a plant's cell wall primarily composed of? Cellulose
What cellular organelle is the packaging, processing, and secreting organelle of the cell? Golgi apparatus
What organelle synthesizes (makes) ribosomes? Nucleolus
A group of organs working together to perform a common function is a(n) ______. System
Tiny, hair-like extensions on the outside of a cell used for movement are _____. Cilia
What phrase describes the cell membrane since it allows some substances to pass but prohibits others? Selectively permeable or semi-permeable
What cellular organelle is missing in a mature red blood cell that is normally present in animal cells? Nucleus
What word means "one celled"? Unicellular
What organelle stores the green pigment in plant cells? Chloroplast
Which type of cell would have more mitochondria? muscle or fat Muscle
What cellular organelle stores water, waste, etc.? (Central) vacuole
What type of tissue did we scrape from the inner surface of our mouth? How is its cell's shape related to function? Epithelial tissue. Cells in epithelial tissue are flat and platelike for covering and protecting.
What cellular organelle allows a sperm cell to move? Flagella
What cellular process builds or makes molecules? Synthesis
What cellular process releases energy in the form of ATP from organic molecules in food? Cellular respiration
What cellular organelle is also called the "powerhouse" of the cell? Mitochondria
Compare and contrast chromatin and chromosomes. Both are the mixture of protein and nucleic acids within a cell. Chromatin is the scattered form that occurs between cell divisions. Chromosomes are the coiled and condensed form that forms during cell division.
Bacteria are termed _____ since they do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotes
What cellular organelle acts as an intracellular highway to transport molecules within a cell? ER
They jelly-like material that suspends all of a cell's organelles is the ______. Cytoplasm
Name the two types of ER and differentiate between them. Rough ER have ribosomes on their outer surface, while smooth ER do not have ribosomes on their outer surface
What type of tissue is specialized for transmitting messages? Nervous
List the biological levels of organization from simplest to most complex. Cell-tissue-organ-organ system
What cellular process breaks down food into a usable form? Digestion
What factor limits the size of cells? Surface area to volume ratio
What was the name of the colonial algae we looked at in class Volvox
What are the membranous tubes that make up ER and Golgi apparatus? Cisternae
What two types of molecules primarily compose the cell membrane? Phospholipids and proteins
Define bilayer. How it is used in the Fluid Mosaic Model. Bilayer means 2 layers; the cell membrane is a bilayer of phospholipids.
What are the three statements of the cell theory? All living organisms are made of 1 or more cells. Cells come from other living cells. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function.
What organelle carries on cellualar respiration? Mitochondria
Who is given credit for observing the first living cells? Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Define eukaryote. Give an example. An organism whose cells have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. You, dog, cat, oak tree, mushroom, yeast, protist.
What organelle is it? Occurs in large numbers on the outside surface of the cell to move fluid or the cell itself? Cilia
Several tissues working together to perform a specific job constitute a(n) ____. Organ
What is purpose of the mitochondria having the cristae? To increase the surface area of the inner membrane where ATP is released
How many chromosomes do normal humans possess in their body cells? 46
What organelle can occupy 90% of a plant cell? Central Vacuole
What is the outermost living part of a plant cell? Cell membrane
What is the function of the cell wall in plant cells? To provide rigidity, structure, and support.
The heads of the phospholipids in the cell membrane are termed ___ in response to water. Hydrophilic
What are the two types of proteins associated with the cell membrane? Integral (for transport) and peripheral (for structure & receptros)
What type of a plastid in a tomato cell stores the yellow and red pigments? Chromoplasts
What is the name of the model used to describe the cell membrane? Fluid Mosaic Model
Why did Robert Hooke use the term "cell" when viewing cork under a microscope? The little boxes reminded him of rooms in a monastery
What are the flattened membranous sacs within the chloroplasts called? Thylakoids
Give a function of the cytoskeleton of a cell. To help move organelles within the cytoplasm and provide support; provide structure within a cell
What are the 2 types of protein strands that make up the cytoskeleton of a cell? Microfilaments and microtubules primarily (also intermediate fibers)
What cellular organelle is analagous to the brain of a human? Nucleus
What is enclosed within the membrane of the lysosome? Digestive enzymes
What is the composition of cilia and flagella? 9 pairs of microtubules arranged around a central pair
What is the first cell of a human called which forms from the union of sperm and egg? Zygote
Humans are: multicellular or unicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, eukaryotes or prokaryotes. Multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotes
What structure of a microscope is responsible for regulating the amount of light reaching the specimen? Diaphragm
What is another name for the eyepiece of a CLM? Ocular
How do you calculate total magnification of a CLM? Ocular lens x objective lens
What two parts of a microscope are used to properly carry it? One hand on the base and the other hand on the arm
What type of organisms did Antony van Leeuwenhoek observe as the first living cells? In what did he view these? Protists such as Spirogyra and Vorticella in pond water and stagnated rain water; bacteria
The ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment is referred to as maintaining ___________. homeostasis
Cells are able to react to stimuli through a cellular process known as ____. response or responding
How do you calculate volume of a cube? l x w x h
How do you calculate surface area of a cube? 6(l x w)
Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus. Then, how is control of the cell maintained? nucleoid (nucleus like area in the cell that houses the DNA)
What are the primary parts to a phosopholipid? Hydrophilic head made of glycerol and phosphate as well as two hydrophobic "tails" made of fatty acid chains
Give 2 purposes for the proteins within the cell membrane. Act as a cell surface marker; act as carriers in transporting molecules across the cell membrane
What cellular organelles are found in animal cells to organize the microtubules during cell division to help in chromosomove movement? centrioles
Explain why prokaryotic cells lack certain organelles such as mitochondria, ER, and Golgi apparatus but contain certain organelles such as ribosomes. Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane bound organelles. The mitochondria, ER, & Golgi apparatus are bound by membranes, but the ribosomes are not.
What type of an electron microscope creates an image where the inside of the cells are visible? Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
What factor makes the CLM unusable for very small organisms? Due to light's properties, resolution is limited. At 1000-2000X, images become so blurry that EM's have to be used.
What material is a prokaryotic cell wall made of? peptidoglycan
True or false? TEM's and SEM's can be used with living or dead specimens. False. TEM's and SEM's can only be used with dead specimens due to the preparation that must be done to the specimens for use with each.
Instead of lenses, EM's use _______ to aim and focus a beam of electrons. magnets
The study of life is known as ________. biology
The study of all chemicals needed to maintain life is called ______. biochemistry
Give two advantages of an electron microscope over an optical (light) microscope. Much greater magnification and much better resolution. For instance, most CLM's can only magnify 1000X-2000X whereas the TEM can magnify up to 500,000X
The stable internal environment that the body strives to maintain is called ___________. homeostasis
Created by: lburris
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