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Bio: Chapter 24

Speciation The process by which one species splits into two or more species.
Macroevolution The broad pattern of evolution over long spans of time.
Species A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring.
Reproductive Isolation The existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede members of two species from producing viable, fertile offspring.
Hybrids Offspring that result from an interspecific mating.
Prezygotic Barriers Block fertilization from occurring .
Postzygotic Barriers May contribute to reproductive isolation after the hybrid zygote is formed.
Morphological Species Concept Characterizes a species by body shape and other structural features.
Ecological Species Concept Views a species in terms of nits ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of their environment.
Phylogenetic Species Concept Defines a species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life.
Allopatric Speciation Gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations.
Polyploidy When a species originates from an accident during cell division that results in extra sets of chromosomes.
Autopolyploid An individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species.
Allopolyploid A sterile hybrid that is changed into a fertile polyploid by various mechanisms.
Hybrid Zone A region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry.
Reinforcement A process in which natural selection strengthens pre zygotic barriers to reproduction, thus reducing the chances of hybrid formation. Such a process is likely to occur only if hybrid offspring are less fit than members of the parent species.
Punctuated Equilibria In the fossil record, long periods of apparent stasis, in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change.
Punctuated Pattern In a punctuated pattern, new species change most as they branch from a parent species and then change little for the rest of their existence.
Created by: Gianna B