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Neurogenics Midterm

Flaccid Dysarthria to Mixed Dysarthria

What is Flaccid Dysarthria? A weakness/paralysis with reduced muscle tone. Lesion is in the lower motor neuron system
What causes Flaccid Dysarthria (medical terms)? A break in communication between he muscle and nerve synapses
What are 2 salient features of Flaccid Dysarthria? Weakness & Hypotonia
What are the 4 confirmatory features of Flaccid Dysarthria? Reduced or absent reflexes, fasciculations,fibrillations & atrophy
Name some causes of Flaccidity Polio, tumors, trauma, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, toxins, drugs, infections
What is Bulbar Palsy? (Only in Flaccid Dysarthria) Occurs when multiple cranial nerves are damaged
Describe respiration in Flaccid Dysarthria Reduced vital capacity to sustain running speech, not enough air
Describe what is happening at the laryngeal level in Flaccid Dysarthria Breathiness if VF don't full adduct, stridor due to incomplete abduction, aperiodicity(VF don't vibrate at the same time), mono pitch, poor loudness
What is happening at the velopharyngeal level in Flaccid Dysarthria? Hypernasality, lack of air pressure (can't make plosives, fricatives or affricates)--> causes articulation problem
Describe the articulation of a patient with Flaccid Dysarthria? Incomplete contact of articulators, distorted and imprecise articulation
What are the 3 distinguishing features of Flaccid Dysarthria? Hypernasality, breathiness, stridor
What are some treatment options for a patient with Flaccid Dysarthria? Establish respiratory control, increase velopharyngeal closure, strengthening exercises (non speech oral motor), pneumatic exercises(blowing exercises), teach them to prolong exhalation
What causes Spastic Dysarthria? Bilateral damage to the upper motor neurons; lesion in indirect motor pathway
What is the salient feature of Spastic Dysarthria? Spasticity: a resistance to stretch; muscles are stiff move sluggishly in a limited range. They are perceived as weak. Speech is slow and often seems strained but may have bursts of quick speech.
What is it called when the muscle is over stimulated? Hypertonicity
What are the 4 confirmatory features of Spastic Dysarthria? Hyper-reflexive, perception of weakness, limitation of range of movement, movements are slow
What is PseudoBulbar Palsy? Similar to Bulbar palsy, but not the same. Highlighted by slow effortful speech, hypernasality due to a timing issue with velopharyngeal port & lability(inability to control emotional displays)
Describe a patients Respiration with Spastic Dysarthria Reduced inhalation and exhalation volumes
Describe the laryngeal level in a patient with spastic dysarthria? Difficulty abducting VF, no smooth movement-->inhalatory stridor, strained/strangled voice(cookie monster) due to hyper adduction
What velopharyngeal feature is seen in patients with Spastic Dysarthria? Hypernasality due to timing issue/VF closure problems
Describe articulation in a patient with spastic dysarthria Incomplete articulatory contacts, slow rate, silent dead spots in speech, perception of reduced strength, prolonged words/syllables
What are some therapy techniques for spastic dysarthria? Facilitate airflow using breathy sigh, prolonged CV-->prolonged CVC
What is the overall goal for therapy of spastic dysarthria? Functional intelligible speech and to avoid stimulating a spastic reaction
What causes upper motor neuron unilateral dysarthria? Occurs due to small stroke or tumor; complicated by high occurrence of aphasia
What are some deviant symptoms of a patient with unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria? Complaints of slurred speech, trouble controlling saliva, weak tongue/tongue feels heavy, increased muscle tone, spasticity, hypertonia on one side of the body
Describe the phonation of a person with unilateral UMN dysarthria? Mild hoarseness and decrease in volume, possible hypernasality, slow AMR's, unpredictable articulation breakdown, slow rate
What are some confirmatory signs of unilateral UMN dysarthria? Hemiparesis,hemiplegia,
What is another name for Ataxic Dysarthria? Cerebellar Dysarthria
Where is the site of lesion for Ataxic Dysarthria? Always have damage in cerebellum or cerebellar pathways
What is the cerebellum responsible for? Modulates and coordinates activities between the upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron system
What is one salient feature of Ataxic Dysarthria? People think they are drunk
What does cerebellar damage also effect? Balanace, equillibruim, limb coordination, classic ataxic gait(wider when walking)
What are some symptoms of Ataxic Dysarthria? Innacuracy in movement, slowness(trying to compensate), hypotonic sometimes, disturbed diadokokinesis, dysmetria(overshoot/undershoot), nystagmus(uncontrollable beating of the eyes)
What is dysmetria? When a person doesn't have a proper way to measure out distance (i.e.:knock over a cup)
What is nystagmus? Uncontrollable beating of the eyes
What are some issues in the phonation of patients with ataxic dysarthria?
Created by: superpuza



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