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DA 160

Radiology Final - Study Guide 6/17/14

QuestionAnswer
What determines how long film is processed in Manual processing? Developer Temp
What is ideal temp for manual processing? 68 degrees (between 68-70)
How and where are films stored? Dark room (cool, dry and dark)
What makes fixer toxic? Silver
How is radiation is measured for Dental radiographers? Milarad or Mrad
Where should you stand for safety when exposing radiography? 6 feet away/behind OR 90-139 degrees from tube head or primary/central beam
Primary radiation? Beam directly from tube head; aka central beam
Secondary radiation? When the primary beam interacts w/matter; including soft tissue of head, bones, skull and teeth
Scatter radiation? Form of secondary; result of xray that has deflected from path in all directions
What is exposed film before chemical processing? Latent image
What is time elapsed between exposure? (like waiting for a sunburn to show up) Latent period
What is the maximum permissible dose for a DA per year? 5. REM per yr
For minimum exposure to a patient the shape of the PID should be what? Rectangle or 16 inch PID
Lead aprons should have what attached and how they are cared for? Thyroid collar and cleaned after ever patient
Where are long waves eliminated? Aluminum filter; Filters out long waves (long waves have low frequency)
What does the lead collimator do? Restrict size & shape of xray beam
What cells are the most sensitive to ionizing radiation? Reproductive & Lymph system
How is amount of radiation a patient receives measured or attenuated? By RAD (radiation absorption dose)
If the KvP is increased what does it do to the contrast? Makes a more radiopaque film image; contrast is decreased
Genetic effects of ionizing radiation are exhibited in? reproductive cells; mutation in future off spring
Somatic effects are seen in? Somatic cells; poor health, induction of cancer, leukemia and cataracts
Density is? Overall darkness or blackness on film image
Contrast is? Many shades of gray (high contrast - dark and lights that are extremely different/low contrast - opposite of high; no difference
What are dark or black objects on film? Radiolucent; xray beam travels through object and not stopped. Not dense
What are shades of white on film? Radiopaque; xray is stopped at dense object making image
What causes greenish tint? Film not exposed and processed.
Yellow/brown film is caused from? Exhausted developer and or fixer OR insufficient fixer time and or rinsing
What causes clear film? Processed film with no exposure taken
Black film is caused by? Light leak; film exposed to white light
White lines caused by? Scratched film; emulsion removed by sharp object
What causes dark streaks? centralStatic electricity; when film packet is opened too quickly
Developer has what color cap? Black
Fixer has what color cap? Red
The central ray beam should intersect the tooth at what degree angle? 90 degrees
Where is the gag reflex triggered? Soft palate & lateral 1/3 of the tongue
The distance between the dray tube & object should be close or far? Close
What determines the exposure time besides the KvP & mA? Film speed
What do we use cephalometric films used for? To evaluate facial growth & development, trauma and disease and abnormalities
Panoramic films are used for what? To view Maxilla & mandible in single view; Impacted teeth, eruption patterns, detect diseases, lesions and trauma
Foreshortening is caused from? Positive position; too much verticals angulation.
A Quality Assurance Program designed to continually produce diagnostic radiography would include? Quality Administration Procedures
Short waves are..? High frequency (hard rays)
What measures attenuation (absorption) RAD; Radiation Absorption Dose)
Occupational exposure to scatter radiation is measured by? REM; Roentgen Equivalent (in) Man
An atom that loses an electron it becomes what? Ion
Incisive foraman Radiolucent; opening or hole in bone located between the maxillary central incisors
Nasal cavity Radiolucent area seen above central incisors on either side of nasal septum
Nasal Septum Wide vertical radiopaque band seen above maxillary centrals
Nasal spine Radiopaque sharp projection, v-shaped intersection of the floor of nasal cavity and septum (between maxillary centrals)
Maxillary sinus Large radiolucent area above maxillary molars
Inverted Y Radiopaque upside down Y intersecting with maxillary sinus and cavity near canines
Zygomatic process U-shaped or J-shaped radiopaque area above maxillary molar PA's
Genial tubercles Radiopaque circles surrounding the lingual foramen
Lingual foramen Small radiolucent hole located below the mandibular central incisors
Mental ridge Radiopaque thick band that extends from premolar region to the incisor region, like a border following mandible apices
Mylohyoid ridge Radiopaque like the mental ridge, looks like a band below the mandibular molar region (linear prominence)
Mental foraman Radiolucent holes seen in the apical area of the mandibular premolars
Mandibular canal Radiopaque and Radiolucent; looks like a radiolucent band (road) that is outlined with Radiopaque lines
Coronoid process Radiopaque triangular/beak shaped bone seen superimposed or distal to the maxillary tuberosity
Lamina dura Radiopaque dense wall of tooth socket surrounding root of tooth
Maxillary tuberosity Prominence of bone located distal to the last molar in the arch
Median palatine suture Radiolucent joint between the two palatal processes of the maxilla
Retromolar area Bone located distal to the last molar in the arch
Created by: cadengel