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Learning Disability

Language and Learning Disabilities in Children

List and Define 3 types of nonverbal social behaviors Facial Expressions, Gestures and Eye gaze
List 3 examples of higher order cognition Problem solving, Critical thinking, Brainstorming
What is scaffolding? Scaffolding is an instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students.
List 3 examples of intervention for temporal-sequential ordering Graphic organizer, visual schedule, checklists
What are 2 interventions for discourse production/sentence form comprehension? Proof reading & story re-tell
List different types of language Receptive and Expressive
Students who don't use rehearsal strategies fail to _____________ ? Subvocalize
This is the system of rules for combining units of meaning to convey specific ideas Grammar
A child with spatial deficits will have difficulties with what 2 things? Organization & Time management
What are the writing stages? 1. Imitation 2. Graphic Presentation 3. Progressive Incorporation 4. Automatization 5. Elaboration 6. Personalization
What is episodic memory? It is the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place.
What is short term memory? Holds info for short amount of time & sends info to long term memory for further use
An artist with poor handwriting will have good ____ but poor ____ Good- Fine motor skills Bad- Graphomotor skills
What is used as an intervention strategy for social skills/cognition? Role playing & social skills
Name a neuro-motor syndrome Dysgraphia
___________ teach vocabulary and higher order cognition
For poor recall skills a teacher can tests using __________________ Multiple Choice Test
List 2 main categories of Reading Decoding and Language Comprehension
Language that go beyond sentences are? Discourse
Weak sentence formation is caused by? Poor syntax skills
Strong sentence formation is caused by?
What is the primary goal of the SLP? Advocate, increase language skills & improve overall communication
_______________ don't use figurative and pronominal ambiguity Recurrent Themes
_______________ involves all constructs Writing
List 3 accommodations to recommend to teachers Preferential seating, preview, adjust rate & clarify
What are 3 components of demystification? Infusion of optimism, destigmitization & work on strengths/weaknesses
What are 3 functions of attention? Mental energy controls, processing controls, production controls
What is LIPS? Lindenmood Bell Phonemic sequencing program
What are 2 types of phonemic awareness programs? Ear-robics & Fast forward
What deficit does a leaky reader have? Deficit in active working memory
Considering options before acting, thinking & then choosing the best strategy that would lead to the desired outcome is... Facilitation and Inhibition
What are 3 parts of word analysis? 1. Phonology 2. Morphology 3. Context
What are the 7 elements of demystification? Infusion of optimism, alliance formation, destigmatization, defining areas of strength, defining affinities, defining areas in need of improvement, presenting a management plan
Violation of canonical order is what? First noun in a noun-verb-noun sequence need not be the actor (i.e.:The black dog was chased by the red fox)
What is violation of order of mention? Order of actions in a sentence may not correspond to the actual order of events (Feed the dog after you wash your hands)
What is understanding subject parallel function? A noun may be the subject of both clauses in a sentence ( the girl who borrowed the book showed it to her mother)
what is understanding object parallel function? A noun may be the object of both clauses in a sentence (the teacher knows the boy who was chased by that dog)
What is violation of the minimal distance principle? The noun closest to an infinitive does not have to be the object of that infinitive ( Mary promised Jane to buy the flowers)
What is pronomial ambiguity? A pronoun does not always stand for a name in the same sentence (Jim thinks he is a fast runner)
What is the use of distal pronomial referents? A pronoun may be remote from the noun it represents (jack was told to look for a toy among all the ones in the box and bring it inside)
Pragmatic Understanding is what? The true intent of a sentence may not always parallel its literal interpretation (can you pass the beans?)
What is question comprehension? There can be subtle differences between who what why when and which questions (when did you get angry vs why did you get angry?)
What is sentence ambiguity? A sentence may have more than one possible interpretation (its too hot to eat)
What is figurative interpretation? A sentence may not correspond to its most literal meaning (sandy saw the light)
What is inference drawing? The interpretation of a sentence may have implicit meaning (there he goes again)
What is anaphora? The meaning of a sentence may depend completely on one that preceded it (jake likes popcorn. susie loves it.)
What is cataphora? The meaning of a sentence may depend completely on one that follows it. (Betsey had a great time. She loves to go to the movies)
What is an ellipsis? A word needed for good grammatical construction may be omitted from a sentence or between sentences.
Linguistic Saliency determination is what? There is a need to know what is most important or meaningful while processing discourse (summarizing, taking notes, studying for a test)
Extended discourse re-synthesis is what? The beginning of discourse must be retained in active working memory while processing its ending (i.e. retelling a story narrative)
What is sensitivity to text structures? Different paragraphs have specific organizational structures whose recognition facilitates processing (compare and contrast lists vs a list)
Weaving in the 7 elements of demystification in conversation will eventually build what? Resiliency
What are the 3 domains of impact that attention control systems affect? Cognition/academic performance, behavioral adaptation, social/interpersonal effectiveness
What are the three highly related attention controls? Mental Energy controls, processing controls, production controls
What are mental energy controls? In attention, they regulate the initial flow, allocation and maintenance of an energy supply necessary to foster alertness and facilitate the exertion of effort.
What are processing controls? In attention, this is the regulation of intake of information as well as further interpretation
What are production controls? They oversee the minds output
List the 4 parts of mental energy controls alertness, mental effort, sleep/arousal balance, performance consistency
List the 5 parts of processing controls saliency determination, depth/detail processing, cognitive activation, focal maintenance, satisfaction level
List the 5 parts of production controls previewing, facilitation/inhibition, pacing, self monitoring, reinforceability
What is depth/detail processing? Concentrate on incoming info to transfer to long term memory. don't process info they hear
what is cognitive activation? passive processors
what is facilitation/inhibition? think about their options and choose the best one
what is reinforceability? Use previous experience to guide current behavior
What is temporal sequential ordering and what are the 6 functions of it? The sequencing of data organization and integration throughout the cognitive process. Sequential awareness, sequential perception, sequential memory, sequential output, time management and higher sequential thinking
What is spatial ordering and what are the 6 functions of it? Allows for the arrangement/organization of information in space. Spatial awareness, spatial perception, spatial memory, spatial output, material management, higher spatial thinking
What are the 3 parts of memory and describe each Short term memory: info retained in the brain thats retrievable for a short period of time; active working memory: info held in the mind temporarily while working to understand ideas more fully; long term memory: permanent storage of knowledge, skills
What are the 3 parts of short term memory? Saliency determination, recoding, depth/detail processing
What are the 4 parts of active working memory? Idea maintenance, task completion maintenance, proximal/distal planning, short term to long term memory linkage
What are the 9 parts of long term memory? consolidation, paired association storage, procedure storage, rule/pattern/schema storage, category storage, access, association, pattern recognition/method transfer. recall
What are the 3 parts of reading analysis? 1.phonological word analysis: segmenting words into phonemes 2. structural word analysis: using morphemes, prefixes, suffixes to help decode and increase knowledge of word meaning 3. contextual word analysis: context clues help derive word meaning
what are the 6 parts of writing? Imitiation, graphic presentation, progressive incorporation, automatization, elaboration, personalization
What are the 3 neuromotor functions? Gross motor, fine motor & graphomotor
What does graphomotor function invove? Motor output of writing- previsualization, graphomotor memory, graphomotor production, feedback
What are the 2 functions of social cognition? Verbal pragmatics and social behaviors
What does higher order cognition do? Helps student integrate ideas/facts and solve complex problems
What are 5 different types of higher order cognition? concept formation, critical thinking, creativity, brainstorming, problem solving, rule use, reasoning/logical thinking, mental representation
What are some other construct deficits that may impact reading negatively? Attention deficits, visual processing weakness, language disabilities, memory deficiencies, higher order cognitive weakness
What are some management techniques for reading? Read to kids daily, tailor teaching methods to individual, underlining, shorter sessions, previewing, drilling, flow charts
What are some management strategies for writing? adjusting amount of writing, allocating extra time, setting priorities, brain storming, structured guidelines, semantic mapping,
What are some accommodations and modifications for graphomotor dysfunctions? Optimum set up for writing, practice letters through tactile therapy, break up writing assignments into smaller tasks
What is code switching? The ability to modify the way of speaking for different audiences
What is topic selection/maintenance? the ability to know what to talk about/ when and how long to keep it up
What is humor regulation? The ability to understand humor and use it appropriately
What is conversational technique? The ability to engage in a two way discussion and share communication
What is self marketing? Presenting oneself to peers in a socially acceptable way
What are some management techniques for social cognition? Teach nonverbal cues, Role play, Examine consequences, use skits or short stories
What are some modifications for higher order cognition? cognitive modeling, external guidance, overt self guidance
What is metacognition? Thinking about the brains own processing/ examine own thinking process
What are some management techniques for memory? Active recoding (making charts), summarizing, paraphrasing, subvocalizing, multi-modal learning, to do list
What are some management strategies for attention? preferential seating, chunking, frequent breaks,regulate sleep cycle, paraphrasing, summarizing, underlining/circling, time limits,flowchart, previewing, time management, schedules
Created by: superpuza



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