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DA 160

Chapters 5-9

Film badge Aka, Docimeter badge; used to measure levels of radiation
Filtration Absorbing materials for removing low energy xrays from primary bean
Inherent filters When primary beam passes through glass window of xray tube, insulating oil and tubehead
Added filters Aluminum disc inserted in xray machine; absorbs low energy xrays
Lead apron/thyroid collar Shields patient from scatter rays.
MAD Maximum Accumulated Dose; lifetime max radiation dose for those in radiology field
Extraoral film xrays/films take from outside mouth
Introral film xrays/films taken inside mouth
Adhesive layer Thin layer that covers both sides, allows emulsion to adhere to base
Bite wing radiograph Antagonist/Occlusal surface image/xray; showing bite of maxillary & mandibular
Cephalometric Aka Ceph; shows bony soft tissue areas of facial profile. Side profile - TMJ, spine, neck and skull. Use din ortho to measure growth
Occulsal Top surface, biting surface of posterior teeth
Panoramic Wide view
Film base Actual film, flexible plastic
Film emulsion Made of gelatin; coating on both sides of film base; gives film greater sensitivity & shortens exposure time
Gelatin Absorbs and disperse silver halide crystals over film base during processing
Silver Halide Crystals/Silver Iodide/Silver Bromide Chemical that absorbs radiation during xray exposure; small crystals require more radiation=better resolution / large crystals=less radiation
Identification dot Perforated impression/bubble on film; Faces up.
Image Picture
Interproximal In between teeth.
Latent image Stores energy from radiation; Denser objects - more energy absorbed, lighter it appears. Less dense - appear darker
Lead foil sheet Tin foil sheets inside film pouch; stops xray beams from going through.
Intensifying screens Used to get better images but intensifies x-rays
Scale of contrast Range of useful densities seen on a radiograph
Object to film distance Distance between film and object when taking xrays
Target to film distance Distance of PID to film
Distortion Variation in true size and shape of the object being radiographed
Focal Spot small area converts bombarding electrons into xray photons
Magnification Image appears larger that normal; making image larger
Movement Not staying still; changing positions from original position
Penumbra Un-sharpness or blurring of the edges of radiograph image
Radiolucent Dark or black images on xray; lucent=dark or black
Radiopaque White images on xray; Opaque=white or light
Stepwedge Device used to demonstrate short scale contrast and long scale contrast; looks like a stair case
Subject thickness Size and density of patient will depend on adjustments of kVp & mA (Killovoltage peak and Millamperage
Overlapping 2 films come in contact with each other
Foreshortening Image shows teeth shorter than they are; resulting from excessive vertical angulation
Double exposure Excessive development time, inaccurate timer, hot developer solution or concentrated developer solution; appears dark
Conecut The PID/cone cuts film off; not centered
Elongation Image looks longer than it is; Angulation is too low
Acidifier Used in the fixer solution; aka acetic acid
Darkroom Special room designed for processing films, chemical & supply storage, controlled temp and free of dust and clean and dry; with zero white light.
Daylight leader
Developer solution Reduces the exposed silver halide crystal chemically to black metallic silver; developing agent, preservative, accelerator and restrainer
Fogged film Improper safe lighting/light leaks, outdated films, high developer temp, improper film storage,
Scratched film When soft film emulsion removed and scratched by sharp object; white lines
Yellow/brown film Over used fixer or developer
Fingernail mark fingernails scratched the film
Fingerprint artifact Fingers touched film with fluoride on them
Fixer solution Removes or clear all undeveloped/unexposed silver halide crystals from film emulsion; has 3 ingredients Fixing agent, preservative, hardening agent & acidifier
Hardening agent Used in fixer solution, shrinks and hardens gelatin in film emulsion; Potassium alum
Light leak Light peak through the dark room; exposed areas appear dark
Replenisher Adding fresh fixer/developer to keep levels and keep solutions fresh.
Reticulation Cracked looking film; temp change between developer and water bath
Created by: cadengel