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DA 160

Chapters 2, 3, & 4 Radiology

Absorption Total transfer of energy from x-rays photon to atoms of matter where the x-rays beam passes
Aluminum disc/filter Usually .5 mm thick, placed in the path of the x-rays beam; filters out non penetrating longer wavelength x-rays
Ampere Electrical; Way of measurement to describe number of electrons passing through conductor (electrical current strength)
Anode Positive electrodes; consist of wafer thin tungsten plate embedded in solid copper rod
Atom Smallest unit of an element; positively charged protons found in nucleus. Negatively charge electrons that orbit around the nucleus
Primary beam Aka primary beam; penetrating beam
Binding energy Attraction between positive nucleus and negative electrons that maintains electrons in their orbit
Cathode Negative electrodes consist of tungsten filament held in a cup shaped holder made of molybdenum
Compton scatter One of the interactions of x-radiation w/matter; the xray photon collides w/a loosely bound outer shell electron & gives up part of its energy to eject electron from orbit. X-ray photon loses energy & continues in a different direction at lower speed
Control panel Part of the dental x-rays machine where power button and other settings are located
Electrons Tiny negative charged particle found outside the nucleus in the atom
Electrostatic force Same as Binding force
Energy Happens when matter in altered
Element Substances made up of only one atom
Insulating oil Oil that surrounds the x-rays tube and transformers inside the tubehead
Ion Electrically unbalanced particle; an atoms that loses or gains electron
Ionization Converting atoms into ions; production of ions
Kilovoltage/kV Overall quality of primary beam; Controls the level of penetration; Thick or dense - higher the KVp
Lead collimator Lead diaphragm or tubular device used to restrict the size/shape of the x-rays beam
Long waves/soft waves Low frequency, low energy
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass. Ex. desk, chair, computer, tissue, muscle, teeth bone and patient)
Milliamperage/mA Depending on mA settings will depend on the quantity of x-rays produced; Regulates the temp in the cathode. mA settings - 7, 10 & 15
Molecule Tiny invisible particle; formed be sharing electrons between the outer most shell of the atom and or transfer of electrons
Molybdenum cup Focuses the electrons into a narrow beam ands directs the beam across the tube towards the tungsten target of the anode
Neutron Subatomic particles and has no charge
Orbit/shell Well defined path where electrons travel around the nucleus
Photon Electrically neutral or uncharged particle
PID Positioning Indicator Deceive; long round tube like portion of tube head where bean comes out
Port Inside corner of the tube head at base of PID
Proton Subatomic particles & positively charged
Scatter radiation A type of secondary radiation; deflected off path and travels to all parts of the body.
Secondary radiation Happens when primary bean hits matter (soft tissue, head ,skull, teeth) less penetrating power
Short wave/hard waves High frequency, high energy
Thermionic emission Release of electrons from the tungsten filament the electrical current passes thru and heats up the filament
Tungsten filament Portion of the cathode in x-rays tube; coiled wire of tungsten that produces electrons when heated
Tungsten target Portion of anodes in x-rays tube; serves as focal spot and converts bombarding electrons into x-rays photons
Wavelength Distance between crest of one wave to the next one determines the energy and penetrating power of the of the radiation
Contrast How sharply dark and or light areas are differentiated on the image
Density Overall darkness or blackness of an image
Exposure time Intervals of time xrays are produced-measured in impulses; Longer time - darker film/Less time - lighter film
Impulse A measure of exposure time
Intensity Total energy of a rays bean
Gray units Unit of measuring absorbed dose; 1 gray = 100 rad
Cell Basic structural unit of living organisms
Critical organs Thyroid gland, Bone marrow, Skin, Eyes
Cumulative effects Additive affects of repeated radiation exposure
Dose rate Rate at which exposure to radiation occurs and absorption takes place
Total dose Total quantity of radiation received; or total amount absorbed
Exposure factors Factors that influence the density of a radiography (millamperage, kilovoltage, exposure time)
Filmspeed How fast the film captures the image. Using F-speed instead of D would reduce radiation by 60% Using F compared to E would reduce radiation 20%
Technique The way the x-rays are taken; the technique used. (long cone paralleling)
Kinetic energy Energy in motion
Genetic energy Radiation induced mutations affect the health of the off-spring; Genetic damage can not be repaired
Genetic cells Cells that are reproductive cells and are passed to future generations.
Somatic cells All cell except reproductive cells
Somatic effects Affects of radiation exposure include the induction of cancer, leukemia and cataracts; these are not transmitted to future generations
Latent period The time that elapsed between exposure to ionizing radiation and the appearance of visible signs (sitting in the sun - hr later skin is red)
Long-term effects Appear in yrs, decades or generations; associated with small amounts of absorbed repeatedly over a long period time
Short-term effects Associated with large amounts of radiation absorbed in short time; Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss & hemorrhaging
Mitotic activity Division of cells; determines the response of a cell to radiation exposure. Frequently divided cells are more sensitive to radiation
Radio-sensitive Lymphoid tissue, Blood forming tissue, reproductive cells, formative cells, embryo cells
Radio-resistant Salivary glands, kidneys, liver, cells of mature bones, muscles, nerves
Roentgen Measurement of radiation
REM Me = 5yr or .1 per weekly
RAD Patient; .1 per yr
MPD Maximum Permissible Dose
Created by: cadengel