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Theory DH Final

EVERYTHING

QuestionAnswer
what does topical anesthesia desensitize? gingiva only, does not work on keratinized tissue
what are the uses of topical anesthesia? preparation for injection prevention of gagging relief of localized diseased areas suture removal or instrumentation
what are the highly resistant tissue to anesthesia? skin, lips, palatal mucosa
what are the tissues that have slow absorption to anesthesia? attached gingiva, buccal mucosa
what are the tissues that have quick absorption to anesthesia? non keratinized tissue
what is ester? topical agents, can have allergic reactions less effective and shorter acting metabolized in blood plasma by cholinesterase
what is an amide? low incidence of allergic reactions but potential for toxicity or drug overdose metabolized by the liver and causes vasodilation of local blood vessels
what type is benzocaine? ester type
what is benzocaine most widely used, risk of toxicity is low because not readily absorbed into circulation
what are the lengths for benzocaine? initial onset is 30 seconds optimum depth and intensity is 1-2 minutes duration is 5-15 minutes
what type is tetracaine hydrochloride? ester type
what is tetracaine hydrochloride? deeper penetration, longer effect but more potential for toxicity
what are the lengths for tetracaine hydrochloride? initial onset is 2 minutes duration is 20-60 minutes
what is the only amide used alone as a topical? lidocaine and lidocaine hydrochloride
what type is lidocaine and lidocaine hydrochloride? amide type
what are the length os the lidocaine and lidocaine hydrochloride ointment initial onset: 1-2 minutes optimum application: 3-5 minutes duration: 15 minutes
what is the duration of lidocaine transoral patch? initial onset is 2.5-5 minutes max 15 minutes after application duration: 45 minutes
what makes up oraqix? 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine
what is the length of oraqix? initial onset 30 seconds duration 14-31 minute (20 ave) max dose 5 cartridges
what are the toxic effects of anesthesia headache, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal irritation, convulsions, unconsciousness
how do you apply lollicaine? apply gel to dry mucosa, wait 1 minute can penetrate up to 4 mm
how do you apply oraqix? dispens thin layer at gingival margin wait 30 seconds insert blunt tipped applicator into sub gingival pocket dispense until it is overflowing
what are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation? redness (erythema), swelling (edema), heat and pain loss of function
what are the significance of gingival assessment: determinate inflammatory and non inflammatory changes formulating treatment plan baseline comparisons for findings and periodontal maintence
what is the acute transient phase for periodontal disease? local vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
what is the delayed sub acute phase for periodontal disease? migration of white cells and other phagocytic cells into the tissue
what is the chronic phase for periodontal disease? tissue destruction
what is the number one cause of gingival inflammation? plaque induced gingivitis
what are we looking for in gingival description? color, contour, consistency, texture, location
what does chronic inflammation look like? light to whitish pink (chronic or fibrotic) deeper red or bluish red (cyanotic) pale white (severe disease)
what are the parts of a periodontal assessment? probing, bleeding, clinical attachment level, furcation, mobility, mucogingival involvement
what is suppuration composed of? dead cells, PMN's (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
what can cause gingival recession mechanical trauma, orthodontic movement, crown margins, dental procedures, destructive inflammatory periodontal disease
what is the most common site for furcations? mandibular molars
what is the measurement for mandibular molar furcations? 3-4 mm from CEJ
What are the spots you can have furcations? mandibular molars, maxillary molars, maxillary first premolars
what are the measurements for maxillary molars 4-5 mm
what are the measurements for maxillary first pre moalrs 6-7 mm
what is a class one furcation? interradicular bone intact no radiographic evidence
what is a class two furcation? probe partially enters furcation (1/3) radiographically visible
what is a class three furcation? furca occluded with gingiva interradicular bone destroyed
what is a class four furcation? furca open and exposed through and through involvement
what is class I movement? slight, up to 1 mm
what is class II movement? moderate, up to 2 mm
what is class III movement? severe greater than 2 mm movement and depressible
what is slight periodontitis? less than 30% boneloss
what is moderate periodontitis? 30-50% bone loss
what is severe periodontitis? more than 50% bone loss
what is scaling? removal of calculus and dental biofilm from the supra gingival and sub gingival exposed tooth surface
what is periodontal debridement? removal of all residual calculus and toxic materials from the root to produce a clean smooth tooth surface
what is root planing? instrumentation of periodontally involved teeth to remove cementum that is rough or contaminated with endotoxins
what are the contraindications for periodontal debridement? lack of motivation for home care teeth with severe perio and mobility pockets depths requiring surgery extreme hypersensitivity anug
What is the number 1 cause of death in the US? myocardial infarction
what is hypertension? persistent elevation of the systolic and diastolic blood pressures above 140
what are the risk factors for gingival inflammation or enlargement? poor home care, changes in hormonal levels, systemic disease, some drugs
what are some drugs that can cause gingival inflammation? phenytoin, valproate, cyclosporine, calcium channel blockers (nifedipine)
what are the non modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease age (greater than 70) gener (men) race (blacks and hispanics) genetic predisposition disease patterns anorexia nervosa/bulimia
what are the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease? tobacco use, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, stressful lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, diet, periodontal disease, oral contraception
what are the early signs of hypertension? usually asymptomatic but might get occipital headaches and vision changes, dizziness and ringing in ears
what are the advanced signs of hypertension? hemorrhages, enlargement of left ventricle, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris or renal failure
what are the categories of drugs used to prescribe for hypertension diuretics: promote renal excretion sympatholytics: modify nerve activity vasodilators: increases blood vessel size and facilitates blood flow
what is stress reduction protocol? establish effective communication and trust provide patient with sense of control short appointments, morning appointments use tell, show, do let patient know when or if discomfort might be felt use available pain measures
what is infective endocarditis? infection of endocardium, heart valves, cardiac prosthesis caused by bacteremia (presence of blood in the bloodstream)
what are the bacteria that can cause infective endocarditis? s. aureus, s. epidermidis, s. viridans, alphahemolytic streptococci, may be yeast, fungi or viral
what are the risk factors for infective endocarditis? rhematic heart disease, valvular heart defects, prosthetic heart valves, systemic pulmonary shunts, mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation
what are the modifications for infective endocarditis? premed if requires, 9-14 days between appointments
what is rheumatic heart disease? cardiac manifestations of rheumatic fever beta hemolytic group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection valvular damage causes mitral valve and aortic valve destruction heart murmur sound or irregular heart beat
what are the signs and symptoms of valvular defects? chest pain, increased heart rate, palpitations, anxiety congestive heart failure if not treated
what are the treatment plan modifications for valvular defects? no treatment plan modifications unless underlying cardiovascular conditions or taking anticoagulants
what is the optimal prothrmbin time? normal prothrobin time? optimal less than 20 seconds normal is 11-14
what is bradycardia? slowness of the heartbeat, less than 60 beats per minute may be initial symptoms of acute myocardial infarction
what is tachycardia? increased heart rate above 150
what is premature ventricle contractions? pauses in an otherwise normal heartbeat caused by fatigue, emotional stress or excessive coffee
what is ventricular fibrillation advanced stage of tachycardia, most lethal arrhythmia, death may occur within 4 minutes
what is heart block? dysrhythmia caused by blocking impulses from atria to ventricles at the AVA node
what are the precautions of a patient with a pacemaker senstive to electromagnetic interferences if unshielded like ultrasonic, pulp testers
what causes atherosclerosis? insufficient blood flow from coronary arteries into myocardium
what are the symptoms of angina pectoris burning, squeezing or crushing tightness in the chest that radiates to the left arm, beck and shoulder blade
what is the treatment for angia pectoris? 1 tablet of nitroglycerin (vasodilator) sublingual ever 5 minutes no more than 3 tablets every 15 minutes
what should you do if someone has a medical emergency of angia pectoris? stop treatment, place upright position, give nitroglycerin sublingually, monitor vitals, if pain persists activate EMS
What is a myocardial infarction? reduction of blood flow through one of the coronary arteries, resulting in an infarct
what are the symptoms of a myocardial infarction persistent pain, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath
ow long should you postpone DH treatment after a myocardial infarct? until 6 months
what happens in left sided myocardial dysfunction? dyspnea, shortness of breath in supine, cough expectoration
what happens in right sided myocardial dysfunction? edema in feet and ankles, cold hands and feet
Created by: Chobchi