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Pathology Final

Blood disorders to skin disorders

what is anemia? decreased amount of hemoglobin per ml of blood the blood plasma volume is increased and the total blood volume is the same
what are the major clinical features of anemia? pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, weakness, fatigability, dyspnea and palpitation on exertion but not on rest
what is pernicious anemia? chronic autoimmune gastritis decreases gastric secretion of intrinsic factor, atrophy of the gastric mucosa. Deficiency of intrinsic factor impairs intestinal absorption of vitamin B12
what are the major complication of pernicious anemia? degeneration of the spinal cord with motor and sensory deficits may be complicated by spinal cord degeneration
how is pernicious anemia treated? injections of vitamin B12
what do the erythrocytes look like in pernicious anemia? look larger than normal
what is iron deficiency anemia? more frequent in women than in men, deficiency of body iron stores is caused by chronic blood loss from menorrhagia (pregnancy, lactation, bleeding from carcinoma)
what do the erythrocytes look like in iron deficiency anemia? small, poorly hemoglobinized erythrocytes
what is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia? long term oral iron therapy
what is sickle cell anemia? (age) common hereditary disease of blacks, occurs in children and young adults of both sexes abnormal hemoglobin which aggregates in filamentous polymers when exposed to low oxygen tension inherited as a sex linked recessive trait
what do erythrocytes look like in sickle cell anemia? narrow, elongated and often crescentic with pointed end
what are the complications of sickle cell anemia? sickled erythocytes interlock with one another to form logjams in small blood vessels resulting in infarcts in the spleen, bone, brain and other organs
what are the common features of leukemia? enlargement of the spleen, increased white blood cell count, thrombocytoenia with a hemorrhagic diathesis
what is leukemia? in most cases of leukemia the total leukocyte count in the blood is increased
what is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? (age) occurs in elderly adults, usually occurs after age 50 severe leukocytosis composed of mature (structurally normal small) lymphocytes generalized lymph node enlargement, myelophthisic anemia (bone marrow infiltrated by non red blood cells)
what happens if chronic lymphocytic leukemia is untreated? untreated patients pursue a slow progression over several to many years, most patients survive more than 10 years
what is acute granulocytic leukemia? moderate leukocytosis composed of markedly immature granulocytic or monocytic cells, may occur at any age
what are the major complications of granulocytic leukemia? decreased resistance to bacterial and fungal infections
how do you treat granulocytic leukemia? rapidly clinical progression and poor response to therapy
what is non hodgkin's malignant lymphoma? more common than Hodgkin's disease, occurs at an older average age usually arises in the lymph nodes, rapid dissemination of tumor tissue is common and many patients have generalized disease by the time the diagnosis is established
what is the lesion of non Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma? rapid dissemination to produce generalized disease, advance cases often have generalized lymph node enlargement NO REED STERNBERG CELLS
what is treatment for Non Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma? about half the patients are cured by current therapy
what is Hodgkin's disease? often occurs in young adults, most common in young adults ages 20-40, usually arises in the lump nodes presents with cervical lymphadenopathy, spreads slowly and predictably in most patients
what are the lesions of Hodgkin's disease? spreads slowly and predictably in most patients, Reed Sternberg cells are present
what are Reed-Sternberg cells? tumor giant cells with biobed or double nuclei present in Hodgkin's disease
what is the treatment for Hodgkin's disease? most patients are cured
what is multiple myeloma? multicentric maligant tumor of the bone marrow composed of neoplastic plasma cells, infiltration of red bone marrow by neoplastic plasma cells
what age does multiple myloma occurs? usually occurs in elderly adults, ages 50-70
what are the lesions of multiple myeloma? sheets of neoplastic plasma cells infiltrate the bone marrow
what can multiple myeloma cause as symptoms? destruction of bone tissue may cause pathologic fractures bone marrow lesions often cause dull back pain, myelopthisic anemia the urine may contain a small immunoglobulin subunit
what is infectious mononucleosis caused by? Epstein Barr virus usually occurs before age 30
what is infectious mononucleosis? clinically apparent disease usually occurs in adolescent and young adults
how is infectious mononucleosis transmitted? transmitted by close personal contact, especially kissing
what are the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis? fever, fatigability, sore throat, and cervical lyphadenopathy and leukocytosis with some atypical lymphocytes convalescence may be protracted
what population is Grave's disease more common in? more common in females than in males and usually occurs before age 50 more common in young women than in elderly men
what is Grave's disease? autoimmune disease thyroid gland is enlarged and hyper plastic with goiter
what happens in Grave's disease? autoantibodies bind to thyroid epithelial cells and cause an increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormones into the blood
what are the signs of Grave's disease? eyes are forwardly protruded or exophthalmos
what population is idiopathic Cushing's syndrome more common in? more frequent in women than in men usually occurs between ages 20 and 40
what is idiopathic Cushing's syndrome? adrenal cortical hyperplasia, excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) with resultant hyperplasia of the adrenal cortices
what are the symptoms of idiopathic Cushing's syndrome? moon face, hypertension and osteoporosis increased plasma levels of cortisol, increased susceptibility to infections
what is iarogenic Cushing's syndrome? caused by therapeutic administration of large doses of synthetic glucocorticoids
what are the symptoms of iarogenic Cushing's syndrome? obesity of the head (moon face) and trunk increased susceptibility to infections
when does juvenile diabetes mellitus begin? usually begins before age 20
what is juvenile diabetes mellitus? autoimmune disease with descrutionof the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans
what are the symptoms of juvenile diabetes mellitus? hyperglycemia, severe insulin deficiency with resultant hyperglycemia and glycosuria and polyuria
what happens in untreated patients with juvenile diabetes mellitus? untreated patients may develop ketosis, acidosis and coma
when does adult diabetes mellitus happen? usually begins in a obese person over age 40
what are the symptoms of adult diabetes mellitus? hyperglycemia and glycosuria especially after a meal glomerulosclerosis with proteinuria and slowly progressive renal failure
what are the predisposing factors of adult diabetes mellitus? heredity and obesity
what is adult diabetes mellitus? insulin deficiency impairs the transfer of glucose from extracellular fluids into cells resulting in hyperglycemia which in turn causes the sugar to spill into the urine
what is diabetic ketoacidosis? caused by severe insulin deficiency glycosuria with resultant polyuria increased fat catabolism with ketosis
what is diabetic glomerulosclerosis? occurs in both juvenile and adult diabetes mellitus may cause proteinuria with nephrotic syndrome slowly progressive renal failure
how is monoglism or down's syndrome caused? trisomy of chromosome 21
what are the symptoms of monogolism or down's syndrome? wide set eyes with oblique palpebral fissures small brain with mental deficiency and decreased number of neurons simplified gyral pattern single traverse palmar crease in each hand
what is the common cause of cerebral palsy? anoxia occurring before, during or shortly after childbirth
what are the symptoms of cerebral palsy? bilaterally symmetrical brain lesions with loss of neurons and gliosis shrunken firm cerebrall gyri and loss of fibers most patients have normal mental capacity often causes spastic weakness of the LOWER limbs
what causes an infarct of the brain? occlusive thrombosis of a sclerotic cerebral artery cerebral arteriosclerosis plus an acute event such as arterial thrombosis of hypotension
what is more common, cerebral hemorrhage or infarct of the brain? infarct of the brain
what are the symptoms of infarcts of the brain? liquefactive necrosis of the brain tissue most patients survive the acute event but some are left with permanent neurologic deficit such as aplastic hemiplegia
what does an infarct of the basal ganglia produce? permanent contralateral spastic hemiparesis or hemiplegia
what causes cerebral hemorrhage? combination of hypertension and cerebral arteriosclerosis hematoma in the basal ganglia
what are the symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage? headache, coma and grossly bloody cerebrospinal fluid sudden onset of severe headache promptly followed by coma
what is glioblastoma multiforme composed of and occur in? atypical astrocytes and usually occurs in the cerebrum of adults rapidly growing solid tumor that increases intracranial pressure
what is the outcome of globlastoma multoforme? rapid growth with death in a few months to 2 years after clinical onset causes death within 2 years after clinical onset
what is meningioma? arises in the meninges slowly growing tumor cured by excision
when does multiple sclerosis begin? usually begins before age 40 common disease more frequent in omen than in men and usually begins before the age of 50
what is multiple sclerosis? multole foci of demylination (plaques) with initial preservation of axons involves the brain and spinal cord
what is the outcome of multiple sclerosis? erratic clinical course with remission and exacerbation most patients survive more than 10 years after clinical onset most patients live several decades after clinical onset
what age does parkinson's disease begin? common disease of elderly persons
what happens in Parkinson's disease? loss of pigmented neurons from the substantial nigra deficiency of dopamine in the brain
what are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease? masklike facies and resting tremors of the fingers, shuffling gait and pill rolling tremors of the fingers
when is alzheimer's disease common? common disease of persons over age 80
what does the brain look like in alzheimer's disease? decreased brain weight, loss of cerebral neurons narrow cerebral gyri and wide sulci degeneration and final loss of scattered neurons
what is the outcome of Alzheimer's disease? slow but relentless mental deterioration over several (2 to 10) years memory loss intellectual deterioration and final dementia intellectual deterioration with eventual dementia
what is Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy? (age) inherited as a sex linked recessive trait and occurs only in males onset in early childhood with death in adolescence or young adulthood shrinkage and final disappearance of skeletal muscle fibers symptoms (if present) usually begin after age 50
what are the symptoms of Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy? weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles may involve myocardium death before age 30
what is more common, degenerative joint disease of rheumatoid arthritis? degenerative join disease
who gets denotative join disease more commonly? elderly persons predisposing factors include obesity and excessive use of a joint
what joints usually get degenerative joint disease? involves the hips and knees more severely than the shoulders and elbows involves larger weight bearing joints and spares the smaller joints of the hands and feet involves the knees more severely than the elbows
how does denotative joint disease progress? central erosion of articular cartilages, exposing dense bone
rheumatoid arthritis is more frequent in what population? more frequent in females than in males and usually begins before age 50
what do untreated cases of rheumatoid arthritis progress into? fibrous or bony ankylosis of involved joints often progresses to bony fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints
what are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis? rheumatoid factor is usually present in the serum granulation tissue (pannus) extends from the inflamed synovium over the articular cartilages causing peripheral erosion of the articular cartilages
where does osteochondroma arise from? more often arises from the lower metaphysics of the demur (knee region) than from the external surface of the skull cartilage capped bony nodule on the external surface of the involved bone
when do you get osteochondroma? usually arises before age 30 occurs in children or adolescents
where does osteosarcoma arise from? arises in the metaphysics of a long tubular bone, often int he region of the knee (distal part of the femur or the proximal part of the tibia)
what is osteosarcoma composed of? markedly atypical bone forming cells early hematogenous metastases in the lungs
what is chondrosarcoma? occurs in mid adult life grows slowly but often recurs after local excision hemtogenous metastases occur late in the course
what causes dermatophytoses? fungi that grow in the epidermal keratin layer causing pruritus often involves toes (athlete's foot) or groin (jock itch)
what is pruritus? itch
who usually gets impetigo? usually occurs on exposed skin areas, especially the face and hands of young children
what does impetigo usually look like? acute purulent inflammation of the epidermis with formation of honey yellow crust on the skin surface that is pruritus (itchy)
what causes verruca vulgaris? caused by the type 2 human papillomavirus infection of the epidermis
what does verruca vulgaris look like? squamous papilloma covered by thick layer of keratin usually growls slowly, persists for several months to several years and finally regress and disappears
what causes basal cell carcinoma and where does it usually occur? caused by chronic solar irradiation, usually occurs in the face
what is more frequent, squamous carcinoma of the skin or basal cell carcinoma? basal cell carcinoma
what does basal cell carcinoma usually look like? slowly growing firm pearly bump which finally ulcerates centrally leading an elevated pearly margin usually begins as a firm pearly bump which eventually ulcerates centrally
what is the growth like in basal cell carcinoma? growth is slowly but invasive and neglected cases may produce extensive local tissue destruction
does basal cell carcinoma metastasize? NOOOOO
who is malignant melanoma more frequent in? more common in whites than blacks
what is malignant melanoma composed of? composed of atypical melanocytes
what do early lesions of malignant melanoma look like? early lesions are flat pigmented areas and later become elevated and nodular
what is the spread of malignant melanoma look like? slow radial spread usually precedes vertical growth to produce a nodular mass
what happens in neglected cases of malignant melanoma? neglected cases often produce widespread lymphatic and hematogenous metastases
what is poison ivy dermatitis? slowly developing dermatitis limited to skin areas that contacted the poison ivy plant slowly developing but resistant dermatitis lasting up to three weeks pruritus (itching)
who usually gets acne vulgaris? common skin disease that begins in puberty more frequent and severe in males than females
where does acne vulgaris usually reside? lesions begin at puberty and involve mainly the face
what happens during acne vulgaris? bacterial infection of the comedones may progress to small abscess comedones are blocked and distended hair follicles with their sebaceous glands
what can happen during healing of acne vulgaris healing of more severe lesions often leaves permanent pitted scars several lesions, especially those complicated by bacterial infections may heal to leave permanent pitted scares
when does psoriasis usually occur and in who? usually begins before age 40 more common in whites than in blacks
what does psoriasis look like? slightly elevated pink papules and plaques covered by silvery scales lesions are covered by silvery scales caused by abnormal keratinization
what is the course of psoriasis? chronic course with remissions and exacerbations
Created by: Chobchi