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Chapter 15

Human Growth and Development

Theories that describe the ways in which societies place people on a particular life path are called: A. self theories. B. stratification theories. C. continuity theories. D. activity theories. B. stratification theories.
Self theories emphasize: A. social forces. B. levels of discrimination. C. perceptions of self. D. circumscribed opportunities. C. perceptions of self.
Erikson called the final crisis of development: A. optimization versus compensation. B. generativity versus stagnation. C. integrity versus despair. D. activity versus disengagement. C. integrity versus despair.
According to Erikson, integrity versus despair is the focus of: A. adolescence. B. early adulthood. C. middle adulthood. D. late adulthood D. late adulthood
Yvette looks back at life with pride even though some of her personal history include errors on her part. shes in the stage Erikson called: A.generativity vs stagnation B.optimization vs compensation C.activity vs disengagement D.integrity vs despair D. integrity versus despair
According to Erikson, each new experience throughout life requires: A. both assimilation and accommodation. B. a reassessment of identity. C. selective optimization. D. stratification. B. a reassessment of identity.
Meg was asked to select a cherished object She chose a brassy picture frame with an old photo of her and her mother Her selection demonstrates an attempt to: A.portray it as valued antique young again C.hold onto her identity like her mother C. hold on to her identity.
a musician limits his repertoire practices more and changes posture when he plays. He is: into despair of the last life cycle stage B.using selective optimization w/ compensation C.becoming less ambitious/ creative D.showing signs of alzheimers B. using selective optimization with compensation.
In older adults, a positive world view: A. correlates with less well being. B. correlates with believing that life is meaningful. C. is associated with increased family conflict. D. is associated with increased responsiveness to regretful events. B. correlates with believing that life is meaningful.
A study indicated that the brains, bodies, and behaviors of adultscdiagnosed with _____ were more like those of younger adults; they did not age the appropriate way. A.the positivity effect B.compulsive hoarding C.late-life depression D.disengagement C. late-life depression
_____ theories claim that social forces limit individual choice and direct life, especially in late adulthood. A. Dynamic B. Self C. Stratification D. Stage C. Stratification
Age, gender, ethnicity, and income are the four major categories of _____; as such, they can limit choice at every stage of life. A. cognitive development B. socioeconomic status C. self theories D. stratification D. stratification
The idea that opportunities and roles are determined based on age is referred to as: A. stratification by age. B. selective optimization. C. self-actualization. D. social stagnation. A. stratification by age.
The most controversial version of social stratification theory is _____, in part because it can be used to justify ageism and social isolation. A. compensation B. disengagement C. optimization D. activity B. disengagement
A man who is 65 years old develops a passive style of interaction and withdraws from his connections with younger people. Which theory says this behavior is natural? A.continuity B.self-actualization C.selective optimization D.disengagement D. disengagement
The antithesis of disengagement theory is _____ theory. A. epigenetic B. identity C. activity D. feminist C. activity
The view that elderly people need to remain active in a variety of social spheres is called: A. stratification theories. B. positivity effect. C. activity theory. D. disengagement theories. C. activity theory.
Which theory focuses on the gender divisions promoted by society? A. feminist B. continuity C. disengagement D. sexist A. feminist
Gender-stratification theory recognizes that men and women are pushed into certain roles because of their sex, roles that may ultimately: A. limit women but not men. B. harm them in late adulthood. C. keep society intact. D. make them better spouses B. harm them in late adulthood.
The increased allostatic load that African Americans experience as a result of years of stress related to discrimination is referred to as: A. self theory. B. weathering. C. disengagement. D. integrity. B. weathering.
In the U.S., elderly Hispanics seem to have a _____ advantage over elderly non-Hispanics. A. longevity B. income C. health care D. education A. longevity
Older immigrants tend to be: A.happy/financially stable due to retirement B.well integrated to extended family life as is US norm C.isolated but provided for by social welfare D.lonely/ poor without a US work history or the benefit of family support D. lonely and poor, without a U.S. work history or the benefit of extended family life to support them.
The crucial stratification variable in the well being of the elderly is _____, which causes a lifetime of stresses including less education, health care, and many accumulating disadvantages A. the age of retirement B. low income C. age D. family size B. low income
Denmark which has the most happy seniors mitigates stratification by income by: A.requiring that younger family members financially support elder B.limiting family size C.providing free health care/ subsidized senior housing D.allowing no retirement C. providing free health care and subsidized senior housing
All of the following workers are quite likely to remain in the paid labor force after age 60 EXCEPT: A. an English professor. B. a unionized mechanic at a local factory. C. an independently employed cleaning lady. D. a judge in a state court. B. a unionized mechanic at a local factory.
_____ provides social status, financial security, and independence for older adults. A. Paid employment B. Volunteer opportunities C. Retirement D. Medicare A. Paid employment
After mandatory retirement was outlawed on a federal level in the 1980s, the average retirement age: A. increased dramatically. B. decreased. C. stayed the same. D. was no longer measured. B. decreased.
Which of the following occupations still has a legal mandatory retirement age? A. doctor B. lawyer C. jet pilot D. teacher C. jet pilot
What proportion of adults over the age of 65 volunteer in formal settings? A. 1/2 B. 1/4 C. 3/4 D. 1/3 B. 1/4
Which is NOT a reason elders dont volunteer?A.volunteering is an intense experience not designed for themB.they are afraid to leave familiarityC.Organizations lack recruitment/training efforts aimed at themD.They do not want to give time/ money to others D. The elderly usually do not want to give time or money to assist others.
Typically, who does more housework after retirement than before? A. men B. women C. hired caregivers D. both men and women D. both men and women
Generally, where do the elderly prefer to live? A. in a planned retirement community B. with their children or other relatives C. in their own homes D. in nursing homes C. in their own homes
When older Americans move, they are most likely to move: A. not far from their old residence. B. to a warm climate. C. to the town where they were born. D. to the countryside, where it is quiet and where there is less crime. A. not far from their old residence.
When many adults who moved into a neighborhood decades earlier never leave the area, the result is: A. assisted living. B. an empty nest. C. a universal design. D. a naturally occurring retirement community. D. a naturally occurring retirement community.
Which state has the highest proportion of people over the age of 65? A. Florida B. California C. Arizona D. Maine A. Florida
The fact ME PA WV follow FL as the states with highest proportion over 65 illustrates that: A.most elderly want to retire to warmer places B.only a few states have adequate # retirement communities C.most prefer to age where they always lived C. most people prefer to age where they have always lived.
Religious involvement correlates with _____ because it promotes social relationships and healthy habits. A. higher levels of stress B. better health C. more wealth D. earlier death B. better health
Which about older people and religion is TRUE? A.Religion provide valuable social network B.Belief in afterlife may explain high #s suicide among African American women C.Faith decreases D.Religious identity is never as significant as ethnic identity A.Religious institutions provide valuable social network to the aging
Psychological health in old age is based on: A.belief that ones faith or ethnicity is superior to others B.feeling continuity in experience and traditions among generations C.focus on pleasure and immediate needs D.attendance of religious services B.a feeling that there is continuity in experience and traditions among generations.
What percentage of older adults volunteer in political campaigns? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 5 B. 2
In what way are older Americans the LEAST politically active? A. voting B. writing letters to elected officials C. staying informed on current events D. volunteering on political campaigns D. volunteering on political campaigns
The requirement for membership in AARP is that the person is: A. retired. B. over 50. C. over 65. D. collecting Social Security. B. over 50.
in regard to elections and policy debates, the elderly tend to: in support of economic interests B.uniformly support the candidate or measure endorsed by AARP C.identify with a political party. D.look to their adult children for guidance C. to identify with a political party
The term “social convoy” refers to the truism that: A. he who travels fastest travels alone. B. it is not healthy to spend time alone. C. we travel through life in the company of others. D. we need a strong leader in times of conflict. C. we travel through life in the company of others.
Compared to single older adults, elderly partners tend to be: A. happier and wealthier. B. happier but poorer. C. poorer and less happy. D. wealthier but less happy. A. happier and wealthier.
Who is likely to be the healthiest and happiest at 70 one who? A.never married and lives alone B.lives with her husband of 40 years C.has been a widow for 14 years and did not remarry D.has been divorced for 23 years and lives with her daughter B. lives with her husband of 40 years
Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are: A.more open to possibly divorcing B.happier in their marriage longer interested in sexual interaction D.likely to dwell on areas of disagreement B. happier in their marriages.
About one in every ____ long-term marriages is not satisfying to at least one person in the couple. A. 10 B. 6 C. 2 D. 4 B. 6
One crucial factor in the success of long-term marriages is: A. a sense of agreement on everything. B. a strong sense of shared experiences. C. a more active sex life. D. the trend toward living apart together. B. a strong sense of shared experiences.
Ed and Janet have been married 60 yrs. When asked to share their secret to a long marriage, Ed replied: A.We spend ample time apart B.We have learned how to disagree C.She depends on me for $ D.We each have our own friends instead of combined circle B. “We have learned how to disagree.”
A family of many generations but with only a few members of each generation is called a _____ family. A. beanpole B. nuclear C. stratified D. collective A. beanpole
Brad has added a room to his house in anticipation of his elderly parents moving in with him. As their oldest son, he feels obligated to provide care for them out of a sense of: A. filial responsibility. ethics. C.guilt D.surrogate parenting A. filial responsibility.
When it comes to intergenerational relationships, conflict is more likely in ______ relationships than in distant ones. A. married B. long-lasting C. newly formed D. emotionally close D. emotionally close
Created by: knagle90
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