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Assessment 1

AG 511 Children with Phonological Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Which types of reliability are most important? test-retest; internal consistency; interexaminer reliability
median when arranged from lowest to highest, it is the middle score or the average of the two middle scores
mean average
scoring with basals and ceilings the number of questions between the point in the test where the test-taker is getting things right (basal) and the point in the test where the test-taker is consistently failing items - each test will tell you what the basal and the ceiling is
realistic score every child gets the same questions. If you omit stuff, you may not use the norms
6 basic test administration procedures for all tests 1.develop standard test-giving mind set2.establish rapport with test-taker3.read the manual, follow procedure4.no feedback on both right and wrong answers5.no hints6.watch test-takers behaviour
5 basic assumptions of testing 1.person giving the test is skilled2.errors are accounted for3.subject resembles normative group4.actually tests behaviour in question5.observes the present; infers the future
observational instruments another type of test for younger children using direct observation, interviews with parents, or the combination of both
criterion-referenced test test results are evaluated by comparing to a set of criteria; tests for adults; used more for treatment planning
norm-referenced scoring only by comparing the client's raw score to scores of other subjects in the norming sample does the rest score acquire meaning.
standardized testing always given the same way and scored the same way, no matter who does it
norm-referenced tests the most formal, decontextualized format for assessing language funtion.
sensitivity the degree to which a test accurately identifies that a child has the disorder in question; proportion of agreement between a "gold standard" of diagnosis and the test's outcome score
specificity degree to which a test accurately identifies a child as NOT having the disorder
behaviourism theory proposes "structures" in the mind explains behaviour; can only study observable phenomena; language is seen as just another behaviour
basic elements of behavioural approach focus on observable and measureable behaviour; learning is through response to stimuli, imitation, reinforcement, association; children are "blank slates"
Piaget's theory/cognitive development language is not a separate cognitive skill; children are active constructors of their development;
basic elements of Piaget's theory maturation is necessary; active interaction with environment;
behaviourism theory proposes "structures" in the mind explains behaviour; can only study observable phenomena; language is seen as just another behaviour
basic elements of behavioural approach focus on observable and measureable behaviour; learning is through response to stimuli, imitation, reinforcement, association; children are "blank slates"
Piaget's theory/cognitive development language is not a separate cognitive skill; children are active constructors of their development;
basic elements of Piaget's theory maturation is necessary; active interaction with environment;
psychometrics the measurement of mental traits, abilities, and processes; measurement of language and intelligence
standard deviation how much variation there is in the data
raw score number of items an individual got correct on a test
sensitivity the percentage of children with a language disorder that are correctly classified by the test
specificity the percentage of typically developing children that are correctly classified by the test
basal the point in the test where the subject is getting items correct
ceiling the point in the test where the subject is consistently failing items
delay suggests that the problem is that the child's language development lags behind that of other children
disorder implies that the problem is a condition that a person has
impairment reflects that the problem impairs/interferes with the person's ability to communicate and function
language disorder an impairment in comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written system; may involve form, content, or usage
content semantics and world knowledge
form phonology, morphology, and syntax
use the employment of form and content, as well as knowledge of the rules of cooperative verbal interaction to fulfill communicative goals
determining disorder problem must affect functioning (social, academic) AND scores lower on standardized tests
comprehension vs. production understanding vs. using
receptive language ability to process, comprehend, or integrate spoken language; being able to understand what someone says to you
expressive language putting words together to form thoughts or express one's self
cognitive referencing the practice of comparing IQ scores and language scores as a factor for determining eligibility for speech-language intervention
SLI supposed to apply to children with a language impairment that is not related to any other disorder such as a deficit in hearing, oral structure and function or general intelligence
deviance different patterns of development; some skills are delayed while others may never be mastered
late talker children who have age-appropriate and social development but do not have a 50-word vocabulary and who are not combining words by 2 years of age
Fast ForWord a computer program developed to train children to process sounds more quickly, and phonemes and syllables; effectiveness debatable
identifying children with SLI trouble with verb tense and agreement; have difficulty repeating non-words and sentence repetition;
mental retardation reduced intelligence accompanied by reduced adaptive functioning; score below 70 on an IQ test; assessments made by a psychologist, NOT an SLP; only about 3% of the population
degrees of severity of mental retardation mild - IQ 50-70 (about 85% of MR children)moderate - IQ 35-55severe - IQ 20-40profound - below 25
syndromes a common set of physical traits or malformations sharing a similar prognosis
down syndrome caused by an extra chromosome 21; slanted eyes, small ears, large tongue, short hands, feet, trunk, hypotonia, sometimes: serious physical anomalies
fragile X syndrome linked to the X chromosome; long, narrow face, long, thick ears (mental retardation)
fetal alcohol syndrome drinking invitro; epicanthal folds, narrow eyelids, flat midface, smooth or long philtrim, thin upper lip; small stature; poor coordination; attention problems, poor retention of learned material
William's syndrome very rare; excessively social, elfish features
non organic/non familial mental retardation accounts for 50% of mental retardation; mostly mild, origin simply unknown; tendency to be from low socio-economic status groups
autism spectrum disorder risk 3-4 times higher for boys; unknown origin, genetic defects in brain growth factors
autistic disorder impairment in social interaction and communication; repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, and activities;
Rett syndrome affects only females; first 5 months are normal - after 5 months old - decelerated head growth; loss of controlled hand movements; loss of socialness; poor coordination; severely impaired language and cognitive development
Asperger's syndrome impairment in social interaction; no clinical delay in language or cognitive development; restricted patterns of behaviour, interest, and activities ex: insistence on sameness or repetitive motor mannerisms or preoccupation with parts of an object
etiology vs. behaviours underlying reasons for problems are only helpful insofar as they suggest a likely pattern of disorder ... in the end, what matters is what the child can or cannot do with language
diagnosis to determine by physical examination and laboratory test the nature of a disease or condition
appraisal measurement and description of particular behaviour, frequently through noting strengths and weaknesses
assessment description of the nature, severity, and prognosis of the problem along with a plan of remediation
testing routine administration of a test or battery of tests
examination inventory of patient's behaviour, often with a medical connotation
evaluation the process by which we arrive at a diagnosis. The process must continue until problem is fully understood; often used to refer to the process of determining eligibility
5 purposes of assessment (but not all) 1. evaluate treatment in progress 2. determine severity/is it a problem? 3. through referral 4. access funding 5. cause/identification of a specific problem
areas to assess 1. overall communication 2. language (content/form/use) 3. speech 4. speech mechanism 5. voice 6. fluency 7. hearing
deficit focus implies "missing"; comparison to norms; development 'path' will NEVER follow 'normal path'
strength focus treatment starting place (draws on strength); more cooperation; non-judgmental focus; acceptance of diversity; view as different/not disordered
diagnostic medical model vs. descriptive focus "needs treatment" vs. "what kind of treatment"
take away message from assessment lecture Focus on strengths and on the individual within his or her own context.
some (not all) family considerations 1. need for support 2. integrate child into family 3. maintain balance to meet needs of all family members 4. identify family strengths and values 5. maintain family's "character"
pre-assessment everything that happens ex: phone calls, reviewing reports, talking with other professionals, case history
extension testing observation in natural context; clinician tests (made up); criterion-referenced
working memory allows you to keep something in memory while you process it ex: sounds, words, sentences
biological maturation biological maturation is the major factor in language development
basic elements of the biological maturation approach all humans will develop language unless there is a disability that prevents it; language EMERGES because human brains have parts specialized for language; lang. must be acquired before "critical periods"; lang. is genetically transmitted
critical periods age 5 and puberty
Nativism "Linguistic Theory" Chomsky; focus on grammar and acquisition of rules; linguistic knowledge is innate;
basic elements of nativism approach 1. lang. is separate from cognitive ability 2. lang. is a set of formal rules3. children "little scientists" taking in data4.poverty of the stimulus5. creative errors; not imitation6. Universal Grammar
creative errors rules are generalized and incorrect verbs emerge; not from memory
innate knowledge "black box"; children are born with general grammatic rules and categories common to all langs.
connectionism cognition is a process; "information processing"; gradually organizing bits of information into systems - semantic, syntactic, etc.
overgeneralization applying linguistic rules to more words than the lang. does
cue validity how people interpret deviant sentences in different languages
social interaction innate motivation to communicate; lang. emerges out of the need to convey intentions, desires, and feelings 3. lang. develops in the context of interactions 4. data is not impoverished because adults adjust their speech to help with lang. learning; topic
integrative models pulling together different views into one model
elements of integrative model 1. lang has a biological base2. children actively work on learning lang3. social context helps children learn4.imitation and reinforcement have a role but internal motivation is the key
standard scores and percentiles raw scores are converted so that the age mean and standard deviation is the same for all ages
validity the deree to which the test measures the skill of interest
reliability the test should give the same results regardless of who gives it or when it is given
test-retest reliability test should have been given to the same individuals a second time.
interexaminer reliability different examiners should get similar scores
Created by: Aureole