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ClinChem2 Vits+Endoc

Practice test for ClinChem2 vitamins, minerals, endocrine system.

QuestionAnswer
Vitamin A is called ? retinol
Vitamin D is called ? cholecalciferol
Vitamin E is called ? alpha-tocopherol
Vitamin K is known by what 2 names ? phylloguinone and manaquinone
Provitamin A is known as __ and come from __ __. known as carotenes, comes from plant pigment
One kind of vitamin A is known as retinal (with an A, not an O). It comes from ? livers of animals and saltwater fishes
Preformed vitamin A is known as ? retinal ester
Retinal ester (preformed vitamin A) comes from ? fish oil, liver, organ meats
Carotenoids are a kind of vitamin A that come from ? fruits and vegs
Retinol (vit A) is needed for the function of what part of the eye? retina
Retinol (vit A) is needed for what part of the skin? epithelial tissue
Retinol (vit A) is needed for the growth of __. bones
Retinol (vit A) plays a part in __ and __ development. reproduction and embryonic development
Retinol (vit A) is impart in the function of our __ system. immune
Retinol (vit A) protects us from __. malignancy
Retinol (vit A) can repair damage to our skin by the __. sun
Cholecalciferol, also known as vit D, is a __. prohormone
The activated form of cholecalciferol (vit D) comes from ? 1. fish 2. fish eaters 3. irradiated milk
Vit D is bound to __ __ in plasma. alpha globulin
One form of cholecalciferol (vit D) is D3, also known as ? 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol
The hormonal form of vit D, calcitriol, raises blood __. Ca++ or calcium
Vit D3 (calcitriol) acts on what 3 things in the body? 1. intestinal mucosa 2. osteoblasts/ostioclasts 3. kidney tubule cells
Calcitriol (Vit D3) is used to treat __ __. postmenopausal osteoporosis
Name 3 symptoms of Vit D (cholecalciferol) deficiencies. 1. rickets 2. osetoporosis 3. osteomalacia
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) can come from what 4 sources? 1. veg oil 2. seeds 3. nuts 4. wheat germ
Vitamin E is an __ that protects LDL and polyunsaturated fats from oxidation. antioxident
A lack of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) can cause what 3 things? 1. preemies 2. malabsorption of fats 3. fat metabolism problems
Vitamin K comes from ? plants and gut flora
Vitamin K contributes to what clotting factors? II, VII, IX, X (so 2+7=9 and 10)
People with a deficiency of vit K should avoid __ therapy. warfarin
B, C, and folate vitamins are __ soluble. water
Vit B1 is also called __. thiamine
Vit B2 is also called __. riboflavin
Vit B3 is also called __. niacin
Vit B6 is also called __. pyrodoxine
Vit B12 is also called __. cyanocobalamin (the biggest number and the longest word)
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all __ soluble. fat
Riboflavin (vit B2) comes from many sources. Name as many as you can. 1. milk 2. eggs 3. dairy 4. enriched flours 5. legumes (beans, etc) 6. lean meat 7. fish 8. broccoli
Deficiencies of B2 (riboflavin) can cause what? mucosal lesions
B2 is what kind of enzyme? coenzyme
What does light do to B2/riboflavin? breaks it down
FMN and FAD are both related to which vitamin? B2
Vitamin B3 (niacin) is a __. coenzyme
Niacin (vit B3) comes from what sources? 1. beans 2. milk 3. lean meats 4. whole grains 5. yeast 6. liver 7. poultry 8. eggs
__, which comes from turkey, can be converted to niacin (B3). Tryptophan
Niacin, vit B3, raises levels of __ in the body. HDL (good cholesterol)
B3 lowers what in the body? triglycerides
Niacin is needed to repair what in our cells? DNA
NAD and NADP are related to ? B3/niacin
Niacin (B3) deficiency can cause ? pellagra
Pellagra can cause what to happen to the skin? rash, called Casal's necklace
Pellagra causes what to happen to the tongue? bright red color
Pellagra due to niacin deficiency can do what to the CNS? depression, dementia
Pellagra due to B3 deficiency does what to us (related to digestive system)? diarrhea, vomiting
Niacin (B3) is important in the __ cycle. kreb's
Another name for pyridoxine (B6) is __. pyridoxol
Vit B6 (pyridoxine) is needed for synthesis __ and __ of amino acids. conversion and catabolism
Sources of B6 include what 4 things? 1. legumes (beans, etc) 2. nuts 3. wheat bran 4. meats
Pyridoxine (vit B6) deficiency can cause what problems? Seborrhea (rash and white scales), neuropathy, confusion, depression, microcytic anemia
Pyridoxine has plays a role in __ synthesis. heme
Vit B6 is important in __ synthesis. neurotransmitter
Pyridoxine is important in converting __ to niacin. tryptophan
Vit B6 (pyridoxine) is needed for __ (metabolism of glycogen, lipids, and steroids). glycogenesis
Vit B6 (pyridoxine) is needed for synthesis conversion and catabolism of __ __. amino acids
B12 (cyanocobalamin) is needed for DNA __. synthesis
A deficiency of B12 can cause what kinds of anemia? megaloblastic anemia and pernicious anemia
Cyanocobalamin (B12) is an important coenzyme for cell __ and __. growth and replication
B12 (cyanocobalamin) can be found in __ products. animal
B12 (cyanocobalamin) can be made in the __. gut
Dietary B12 binds to intrinsic factor in the __. intestine
What does cyanocobalamin need for transport to the circulatory system? bile and NaHCO3
B12 (cyanocobalamin) is stored in the __. liver
Aside from anemia, a lack of B12 can cause what 3 things? 1. paresthesia (tingling) 2. decreased deep tendon reflexes 3. unsteadiness
Folate is also known as __ __. folic acid
Folate comes from what sources? 1. liver 2. spinach 3. leafy greens 4. legumes 5. orange juice
Folate travels to the __, into the __, back to the __, and then back to the __. liver, bile, intestine, liver
A lack of folic acid can cause __ anemia. megaloblastic
When testing for folate, we use a __ assay. direct assay (we look for the folate, not something else)
Decreased __ __ can cause a deficiency in folate. intestinal flora
Inadequate __, due to intestinal problems, can cause a deficiency in folate. absorption
__ often suffer from folate deficiency due to inadequate consumption. Alcoholics
__ and __ treatment can cause an increased demand for folate, leading to a relative shortage. Pregnancy and cancer treatment
What drugs can interact badly with folate? 1. methotrexate 2. phenobarbitol
Vit C is also known as ? ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid (Vit C) comes from what sources? 1. citrus fruits 2. green veggies 3. tomatoes 4. potatoes 5. brocolli
What groups of people require higher doses of Vit C? smokers and dialysis patients
Ascorbic acid is important in __ absorption. iron
Vit C is needed to __ crosslinking in bones. collagen (the soft rubbery part of bones)
Ascorbic acid (Vit C) is measured by __ assay. direct
Too little Vit C can cause __. scurvy
Too much ascorbic acid can cause __. kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
Vit C (ascorbic acid) is also an __. antioxidant
Calcium is a mineral and a __ that hardens bones. salt (hydroxyapatite)
Calcium is bound to what protein in the plasma? albumin
To find total calcium, we use ? colorimetric orthocresolphthalein
To find ionized calcium, we use ? ISE (ion selective electrode)
What disease makes bones bigger and weaker due to the spaces inside them becoming wider? Pagent's disease
Phosphorous is an important mineral in energy __ and exchange. storage
Ammonium molybdate joins phosphate ions to form __ __. phosphomolybdate complex
Magnesium is an important mineral for the __ of bones. surface
Like calcium, magnesium is bound to __. proteins
Magnesium can be taken from the __ or the __ to correct abnormal levels. kidneys or the bones
Magnesium is important in __ replication, transcription, and translation. DNA
Magnesium is needed for __ conduction. nerve
To find total magnesium levels, we use a __ method. colorimetric
Retinol is also known as ? Vit A
Cholecalciferol is also known as ? Vit D
Alpha-tocopherol (a-tocopherol) is also known as ? Vit E
Phylloquinone and manaquinone are also known as ? Vit K
Calcitriol is also known as ? Vit D3
Riboflavin is known as ? Vit B2
Pyrodoxine is known as ? Vit B6
Cyanocobalamin is known as ? Vit B12
Thiamine is known as ? Vit B1
Niacin is known as ? Vit B3
Pyridoxol is known as ? Vit B6
Hormones are chemical __. messengers
Most hormones are __ hormones. peptide
Peptide hormones have a short half life of just ? 5-30 mins
__ is the parent molecule for steroid hormones. cholesterol
Are steroid hormones water soluble? no
Why do steroid hormones require a transport protein? Unlike peptide hormones, they are not water soluble
Steroid hormones are synthesized in the ? adrenal glands, gonads, or placenta
What is the half-life of steroid hormones? 30-90 mins
Amine hormones are __ __ derivatives. amino acid
The hormone receptor for steroid hormones are __ the cell. inside
Releasing factors are released from the pituitary in response to __ levels of hormones. blood
Precursors of peptide hormones are called ? prohormones
Peptides are __ in plasma. unbound/free
Steroids are __ to proteins like albumin. bound
Amines are bound to serum proteins and ? thyroxine-binding proteins
Competitive immunoassays are used to measure some hormone levels. A __ antigen competes with the patient's antigens to for antibody binding sites. labeled
When 2 antibodies are used to react with 2 antigenic sites on the hormone molecule, this method of testing is called ? immunometric immunoassay
The hypothalmus lies at the base of the __, just above the pituitary. brain
What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary? infundibulum
The adenohypophysis is in the __ part of the pituitary gland. anterior
The adenohypophysis produces and secretes __. hormones
The neurohypophysis is located in the __ part of the pituitary gland. posterior
The neurohypophysis is the storage area for what 2 things? oxytocin and ADH
Does the neurohypophysis synthesize any hormones? no
Childbirth involves a process called ? positive feedback
Cushing's disease is a result of __ of ACTH from the anterior pituitary. hypersecretion
What are 4 signs of Cushings disease? 1. hyperglycemia 2. truncal obesity 3. hypertension 4. protein wasting
Hyposecretion of ACTH from the anterior pituitary causes what symptoms? 1. weight loss 2. weakness 3. GI problems
Hypersecretion of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) can effect sexual development in what ways? 1. precocious puberty 2. gonads are stimulated to produce hormones that trigger secondary sex characteristics
Hyposecretion of FSH and LH can cause ? sexual underdevelopment
Hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) can cause what 2 conditions? Acromegaly and gigantism
What is the difference between gigantism and acromegaly? Gigantism occurs during the growth phase. Acromegaly occurs after the growth phase.
Hyposecretion of growth hormone is one cause of ? dwarfism
Galactorrhea (the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing) can be triggered by hypersecretion of ? prolactin
Women who experience hyposecretion of prolactin cannot produce __. milk (even postpartem)
Hyposecretion of ADH can cause ? diabetes insipidus
There are no known disorders associated with problems producing ? oxytocin
Hypersecretion of ADH can by the posterior pituitary can cause ? SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion)
Adrenal glands sit on top of each ? kidney
Created by: IsaacJ