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1406 TEST 4

DNA, REPLICATION & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

QuestionAnswer
Each new copy of a replicated chromosome sister chromatid
Long strands of DNA (chromosomes)are wound around proteins called histones
centromere region where chromatids are connected until anaphase
compare daughter cell formed in mitosis to the parental cell as they appear in G1 same number of chromosomes and same amount of DNA
chromatid replicated chromosome
What was the significance of Fred Griffith's experiment with 2 strains of pneumonia pathogens? harmless bacteria can be transformed by absorbing DNA from another bacteria source
Viruses that attack bacteria are called bacteriophages
What was the significance of the Hershey-Chase experiment with radioactive P32 and S35? It showed the inheritance of radioactive P and S in host bacteria for several generations
What are the elements of nucleic acids? C, H, O, N, P
What the monomers (building blocks) of the nucleic acids? nucleotides
What are the components of a nucleotide? 5-Carbon sugars, a phosphate group, nitrogenous bases
What type of bonds are between the nucleotides? hydrogen
According to Chargaff's rule; what are the bonding rules? adenine to thymine cytosine to guanine
Nitrogen bases with double (2) rings are called purines
Nirogen bases with a single (1) ring are called pyrimidines
True or False; double rings always bond to single ring nucleotides. True
Rosalind Franklin's contribution showed Watson and Crick principal structure
Watson and Crick's contribution resulted in DNA was double stranded; helical; consisted of unique base pairings; it's structure permitted replication
The complementary base pairing rules are A - ______ C - ______ T G
DNA has been compared to rope ladder spiral stairway
The DNA backbone consists of phosphate and sugar bonds
Messelson and Stahl's experiment best described DNA replications as semiconservative
Replication of DNA produces 2 identical molecules the consist of half new and half parental DNA
The enzyme that adds new nucleotides, proofreads the bonding rules,and rarley allows mutations DNA polymerase
The Okazaki fragments created on the lagging strand are join together by DNA ligase
How many strands in DNA? 2
How many strands in RNA? 1
What are the different types of RNA in volved in protein synthesis? mRNA; tRNA; rRNA
What form of RNA carries the DNA code to the ribosome? mRNA
What form of RNA carries the amino acids to the ribosome to bond with the growing polypeptide chain? tRNA
Which nitrogenous base is found in DNA but not in RNA? thymine
Which compound is found in RNA but not DNA? ribose sugar
The nitrogen base Uracil will bond with Adenine
The relationship of RNA to DNA has called complimentary
Where does transcription take place in the cell? nucleus
What is transcription? the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
What enzyme catalyzes transcription? DNA polymerase
What portion of the DNA molecule and the processed mRNA is the actual genetic code? the exons
How many different mRNA codons are there? 64
The 3 base = 1 amino acids is the basis for the genetic code
3 of the 64 bases do not code for an amino acid but cause the elongation process to ______. stop
If the DNA code were AAGCGT then the mRNA codons would be UUCGCA
To what does the anticodon bond? codon
Translation starts when the mRNA and tRNA attach to the small ribosomal subunit
When amino acids are joined together during the building of the polypeptide primary structre, they form ________ bonds. peptide
What type of mutation causes Sickle Cell Anemia? substitution
Gene mutations can occur randomly and spontaneously
A mutation is any change in base sequence of DNA
2 characteristics of mutations are can occur in all organisms and they can be caused by environmental agents
Mutations can be random, beneficial, harmful, and inheritable
What types of mutations can cause a frameshift? addition of a base or a 1 or 2 base deletion
How many of the DNA strands is transcribed? only 1
Transcribe the following DNA strand: TACCACAATCCCGCATA AUGGUGUUAGGGCACGUAU
If the mRNA strand is AUGUUUACAGGCAACUAG what would the sequence of amino acids be? Met - Phe - Thr - Gly - Asn - stop
Okazaki fragment arrangements 5' RNA nucleotides, 3' DNA nucleotides
removes RNA nucleotides from the primer and adds equivalent DNA nucleotides to the 3' end of Okazaki fragments DNA Polymerase 1
synthesizes short segments of RNA to fill in space between the Okazaki fragments primase
promoter region region at which RNA polymerase will bind and begin transcription for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
5' cap and poly (A) tail helps stabilize mRNA by blocking it breakdown
introns excised after transcription during mRNA editing
exons spliced together to form the final mRNA strand
most abundant type of RNA rRNA
missense mutation changes the sequence of amino acids in the protein
nonsense mutation insertion of a premature stop codon
types of mutations that can cause a frameshift insertion or deletion
Created by: hembreeb72