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Intro to Psych

Chapter 9 Vocab

TermDefinition
Classical Conditioning A learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
Neutral Stimulus A stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) An event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training.
Unconditioned Response (UR) An organisms automatic (or natural) response to a stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A once neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with (occurred just before) an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR) The learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus.
Generalization Responding similary to a range of similar stimuli.
Discrimination The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
Extinction The gradual dis appearance of an unconditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
Operant Conditioning Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corressponding increases or decreases in occurrence.
Reinforcement Stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
Primary Reinforcer Stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained.
Variable- Ratio Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained.
Fixed-Interval Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement.
Variable-Interval Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement.
Shaping Technique in which the desired behavior is "molded" by first reward is any act similar to that behavior and then regarding even closer approximation to the desired behavior reward.
Response Chain Learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next.
Aversive Control Process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli.
Negavtive Reinforcement Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs.
Escape Conditioninng Training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus.
Aviodance Conditioning Training of an organism to respond so as to prevent the occurence of an unpleasant stimulus.
Social Learning Process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others.
Cognitive Learning Form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation.
Cognitive Map A mental picture of spatial relationships or relationships between events.
Latent Learning Alteration of a behavioral tendency that is not demonstrated by an imediate, bservable change in behavior.
Learned Helplessness Conditioned in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
Modeling Learning by imitating others; copying behavior
Behavior Modification Systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings.
Token Economy Conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards.
Created by: bbrider3