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Pathology Exam 1

Pathology Exam 1 thru Neoplasia

what are signs of disease? clinical findings... enlarged hard cervical lymph nodes, enlarged tender liver, rigid abdominal wall
What is NOT a sign of disease? crushing substernal chest pain which would be a symptom
what are lesions or changes of senility? wrinkled facial skin with tan muscles senile atrophy of the brain slowed wound healing
what is NOT a lesion or change of senility? increased bone density with straightening of the thoracic spine
what is coagulative necrosis? occurs in mycardial infarcts necrotic part is often pale and yellow gray permanent cessation of all functions of the affected cells
what is NOT coagulative necrosis? reversible change if the cause is removed it is permanent cessation of all cells
What is liquefactive necrosis? occurs in cerebral infarcts occurs in the center of an abscess irreversible change
what is NOT a liquefactive necrosis? affected cells continue to function normally despite softening of the necrotic part
what are the sequelae of necrosis? necrotic tissue removed and replaced by new tissue derived by regeneration of other non necrotic cells necrotic tissue is removed and replaced by fibrous tissue scar necrotic tissue persists as a sequestrium, which becomes surrounded by fibrous capsule
what is NOT a sequelae of necrosis? necrotic cells are revitalized with return to normal structure and function
what is fatty degeneration of the liver? potentially reversible, hepatocytes function less well than normal liver cells, liver is swollen, soft and yellowish
what is NOT fatty degeneration of the liver? often progresses to abscess formation
what is atrophy? causes include ischemia and pressure involved organ functions less well than normal potentially reversible change if the cause can be corrected
what is NOT atrophy? involved organ is increased in weight and volume by an increase of fibrous stroma
what is obesity? increased number and size of fat cells, increased incidence of hypertension, causes insulin resistance with hyperglycemia
what is NOT obesity? lengthens life expectancy by providing reserve nutrients during periods of stress
what is hemoptysis? coughing up blood
what is melena? passage of altered (black) blood in the stool
what is menorrhagia? excessive menstural bleeding
what is epistaxis? nose bleed
what are mechanisms to control hemorrhage external pressure on the bleeding vessel agglutination of blood platelets coagulation of blood
what does heparin do? Prevents clots in the blood vessels before or after surgery or during certain medical procedures.
what is shock caused by external hemorrhage? hypotension, tachycardia, intrarenal vasoconstriction, skin is pale and clammy
what is active congestion dilated capillaries in the involved part, increased rate of blood flow through the involved part, occurs in foci of acute inflammation, arteriolar dilation
what is passive congestion of the lungs? occurs in cases of left sided congestive heart failure, dilated capillaries in the lungs, may cause pulmonary edema, decreased rate of blood flow through the lungs
what are the causes of edema? increased capillary pressure, hypoalbuminemia, increased capillary permeability,
what is pulmonary edema? may complicate cases of left sided congestive heart failure lungs are large and heavy and the alveoli contain frothy fluid dyspena and cyanosis
what is left sided congestive heart failure? may be caused by hypertension dilated on the left ventricle and or left atrium passive congestion of the lungs
what is right sided congestive heart failure? dilation of the right ventricle and or right atrium, passive congestion of the liver, subcutaneous edema of the feet and ankles, increased total blood volume
what is acute inflammation? rubor (redness) caused by active congestion tumor (swelling) caused by inflammatory edema (exudate) dolor (pain) caused by tissue injury
what is rubor? redness caused by congestion
what is tumor? swelling caused by inflammatory edema
what is calor? heat caused by increased local blood flow and occur only on superficial sites such as skin
what is dolor? pain associated with the initial tissue injury
what is chronic inflammation? caused by prolonged or repetitive tissue injury fibrosis healing often leaves a permanent fibrous scar dense perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes
what is granulomatous inflammation? may be caused by foreign materials such as sutures predominant reacting cell is the macrophage compact clusters of epitheliod cells large multinucleated giant cells
what is healing of a surgical incision? epidermal healing occurs by migration of epidermal cells from cut edges over the surface wound granulation tissue uses the fibrinous union of the wound as a scaffold for its ingrowth granulation tissue matures to fibrous tissue
what are the cells or tissues with a marked capacity to regenerate? epidermis, liver cells, hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow
what is hypertrophy of the left ventricle myocardium? occurs in persons with hypertension, increased cardiac weight, increased force of left ventricular contraction
what is hypertrophy? increase in size of cells
what is hyperplasia? increase in the number of cells
what is the most common cause of venous thrombosis? slowing of blood flow
what is the most common cause of arterial thrombosis? arteriosclerosis
what usually initiates and completes thrombosis? platelet agglutination blood coagulation
what are emboli? part of all of a thrombus formed in a vein of the lower limb clusters of tumor cells from a malignant neoplasm fat droplets from the marrow of a fractured bone
what is a myocardial infarct? coagulative necrosis of a segment of myocardium healing involves an ingrowth of granulation tissue from adjacent viable myocardial tissue complete healing leaves a permanent fibrous scar in the myocardium
what is a massive thrombotic pulmonary embolism? blockage of the main pulmonary artery substernal distress, dyspnea, hypotension and cyanosis death in a few moments to several hours
what is dry gangrene? occurs in the lower limbs more often than in the sic era caused by ischemia, involved part is bloodless and appears shrunken and brown irreversible
what are symptoms? complaints of the patient
what are signs? discovered by physical examination performed by the health professionals or discovered by laboratory studies and or imaging procedures
what is senility? aging
what are the causes of senility? genetic programming, cumulative intrinsic errors, cumulative extrinsic damage by environmental factors
what are lesions of senility? upper thoracic kyphosis (dowager's hump), senile osteoporosis, compression fractures of vertebral bodies, fractures in wrists, hips, vertebral bodies, skin is wrinkled with tan macules or liver spots
what are signs of death? cessation of both respiration and cardiac action
what is necrosis? pathologic death of a cell or group of cells, IRREVERSIBLE change accompanied by permanent cessation of all functions of affected cells
what is ischemia? inadequate blood flow
what is an infarct? dead tissue or local death of tissue
what is dry gangrene? mummification occurring in peripheral parts especially limbs caused by loss of blood supply, evaporation from causes it to be shrunken, dry, tough and brownish black
what is coagulative necrosis? results from coagulation (denaturation) of proteins in necrotic part which becomes firm but friable, dry, pale and yellow gray
what is liquefactive necrosis? conversion of necrotic tissue to a turbid fluid or semifluid material involved tissue contains too little protein to coagulate effectively like in brain
what is suppuration? neutrophilic leukocytes with their proteolytic enzymes localize in the necrotic tissue and liquefaction of necrotic tissue by action of leukocytic enzymes
what is regeneration? necrotic tissue ma be removed and be replaced by newly formed normal tissue derived from other non necrotic cells
what is scar? the necrotic tissue may be removed and replaced by fibrous tissue scar
what is an ulcer? necrotic tissue may be sloughed from a surface leaving a persistent defect
what is a cyst? necrotic tissue may undergo complete liquefaction to leave a permanent fluid filled defect
what is a sequestrum? necrotic tissue may persist indefinitely which may become encapsulated by dense fibrous tissue
what is degeneration? potentially reversible derangement of metabolism of a cell or group of cells, cell sickness where cells usually function imperfectly
what are the gross changes that a organ undergoing degeneration has? swollen, pale and soft with yellowish color as a result of accumulation of fat droplets in cells called fatty degeneration
what is atrophy? gradual decrease in the size or cellularity of an organ or part of the body
what are the causes a atrophy? decreased blood supply (ischemia), extrinsic pressure from adjacent mass, intrinsic pressure from obstruction of a hollow viscus, nonuse of the part, loss of motor innervation
what does an atrophic organ look like? decreased in weight and volume and usually functions less well than normal, usually reversible
what happens in obesity? cardiac enlargement predominantly a thickening (hypertrophy) of the left ventricle hypertension is more common
what is a hemorrhage? bleeding or escape of blood from a blood vessel or the heart
what is epistaxis? nose bleed
what is hemoptysis? coughing up blood
what is hematemesis? vomiting blood either fresh blood or dark brown coffee grounds formed by the action of gastric juice on hemoglobin
what is melena? passage of altered blood as sticky black material int he stool
what is hematuria? blood in the urine
what is menorrhagia? excessive menstrual bleeding
what is metrorrhagia? intermenstrual uterine bleeding
how do you control hemorrhage? external pressure on the bleeding vessel by the accumulating mass of extravasated blood or by compression agglutination of platelets and coagulation of blood repair of blood vessel
what is shock? clinical condition induced by any process which causes acute decrease of cardiac output
what is the clinical feature of shock hypotension, tachycardia and selective vasoconstriction cardiac output declines, blood pressure falls
what is vasoconstrictor in shock? cutaneous vessels and renal vessels skin is cold, pale and ashen gray and clammy renal vasoconstriction causes oliguria and may progress to renal tubular damage
what is congestion? hyperemia, presences in the vessel of a tissue or organ of more than the normal amount of blood
what is active congestion? arteriolar dilation allowing a greater volume of blood to enter, rate of blood flow through the part is increased and organ is bright red and warmer than normal, blushing or face flushing
what is passive congestion? impairment of venous drainage volume of blood increased by rate of blood flow decreased capillary pressure is increased and edema often develops
what is edema excess of interstitial fluid in the tissue spaces`
what are the causes of edema? increased capillary pressure, increased filtration of fluid from capillaries decreased plasma osmotic pressure and decreased concentration of plasma protein lymphatic obstruction prevents removal of plasma proteins increased capillary permeability
what is hypoalbuminemia? decreased albumin concentration
what causes pulmonary edema? cases of left sided congestive heart failure
what are the clinical features of pulmonary edema? breathlessness (dyspnea), asthmatic wheezing and cyanosis rales and wheezes are audible
what is congestive heart failure? clinical syndrome that results from chronic reduction of cardiac output
what are the causes of congestive heart failure? coronary arteriosclerosis with ischemic injury of the myocardium and hypertension
what are the lesions of left sided congestive heart failure? cardiac dilation of left ventricle and or atrium, passive congestion of the lungs and dyspnea
what are the lesions of right sided congestive heart failure? renal retention with increased total blood volume, cardiac dilation of right ventricle and or right atrium, systemic venous distention (neck), passive congestion of the liver
if a person comes in with an enlarged heart and dyspnea they have what type of CHF? left sided
if a person comes in with an enlarged heart and distended neck veins, an enlarged and tender liver and subcutaneous edema be inning n the ankles and spreading upwards, what type of CHF is that? right sided
what is inflammation? local reaction to injury necrosis of at least some cells must ocur
what is the purpose of inflammation? limit the extent and severity of injury by limiting the spread of the injurious agent by neutralizing its effects
what is the most characteristic feature of inflammation? influx oor local proliferation of inflammatory cells and their subsequent activities
what is the microscopic changes of acute inflammation increase of vascular permeability, leakage of protein rich fluid from plasma into the interstitial space to produce inflammatory edema, emigration of leukocytes mainly neutrophils
Created by: Chobchi