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VIRUS

DNA virus

QuestionAnswer
Live attenuated vaccines (humoral + cell mediated immunity) 1. Smallpox 2. Yellow fever 3. Chickenpox (VZV) 4. Sabin Polio virus 5. Influenza (intranasal)
Killed 1. Rabies 2. Influenza (injected) 3. Salk Polio 4. HAV
Recombinant HBV, HPV
ssDNA virus Parvoviridae
All are linear, EXCEPT Papilloma Polyoma Hepadnavirus
ONLY dsRNA Reovirus
Positive stranded RNA Retro Toga Flavi Corona Hepe Calici Picorna
Require POLYMERASES contained in the complete vision Poxvirus and HBV
Brick- shaped Complex DNA virus Pox
DNA virus, that replicates in Cytoplasm Pox (carries own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase)
Acquires envelope from nuclear membrane of host Herpesvirus
Enveloped DNA Herpes Hepadna Pox
smallest DNA virus Parvo
Largest DNA virus Pox
ssDNA and (-) Parvo
Herpesvirus dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear
Hepadnavirus that has reverse transcriptase HPV (partially dsDNA, enveloped, circular)
Viral conjunctivitis Adenovirus (dsDNA, naked, linear)
Adenovirus dsDNA, naked, linear
aplastic crises in sickle cell disease, "slapped cheeks" rash in children-erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), RBC destruction in fetus leads to hydrops fetalis and death, pure RBC aplasia and rheumatoid arthritis-like symptoms in adults Parvovirus B19 (naked, ssDNA (-), linear)
erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) Parvovirus B19 (naked, ssDNA (-), linear)
aplastic crises in sickle cell disease Parvovirus B19 (naked, ssDNA (-), linear)
"slapped cheeks" rash in children Parvovirus B19 (naked, ssDNA (-), linear)
hydrops fetalis Parvovirus B19 (naked, ssDNA (-), linear)
rheumatoid arthritis-like symptoms Parvovirus B19 (naked, ssDNA (-), linear)
Polyomavirus (dsDNA (+), naked, circular) JC virus-progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV BK virus-transplant patients, commonly targets kidney
JC virus-progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV Polyomavirus (dsDNA (+), naked, circular)
Polyomavirus dsDNA (+), naked, circular
Smallpox Vaccinia-cowpox ("milkmaid's blisters") Molluscum contagiosum Poxvirus
Flesh-colored dome lesions with central dimple, wart like Molluscum contagiosum= Poxvirus
Gingivostomatitis, keratoconjunctivitis, temporal lobe encephalitis HSV-1 (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in the United States HSV-1 (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Latent in trigeminal ganglia HSV-1 (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Herpes genitalis, neonatal herpes. HSV-2 (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Latent in sacral ganglia HSV-2 (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Latent in dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia VZV (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Varicella-zoster (chickenpox, shingles), encephalitis, pneumonia. VZV (dsDNA (+), enveloped, linear)
Most common complication of shingles post-herpetic neuralgia
Mononucleosis, Burkitt Lymphoma, Hodgkin Lymphoma EBV
Latent in B cells. EBV
Teenage girl with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy (especially posterior cervical nodes) Mononucleosis, ¨kissing disease¨, EBV
Atypical lymphocytes on peripheral blood smear are not infected B cells but rather reactive cytotoxic T cells EBV
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma EBV
(+) Monospot test-heterophile antibodies EBV
Latent in mononuclear cells CMV
(-) Monospot test CMV
Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV patients). HHV8
HSV identification 1. CSF PCR: Herpes encephalitis 2. Viral culture: skin/genitalia 3. Tzanck test (genital herpes) smear of opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells. Infected cells also have intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions.
Herpes encephalitis Diagnosis CSF PCR
Tzanck test genital herpes (HSV-2), detect multinucleated giant cells.
Cowdry A inclusions genital herpes (HSV-2)
Negative-stranded RNA viruses Arenaviruses, Bunyaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Filoviruses, and Rhabdoviruses.
Segmented viruses All are RNA viruses. They include Bunyaviruses, Orthomyxoviruses (inAuenza viruses), Arenaviruses, and Reoviruses.
Aedes mosquitoes A flavivirus (also an arbovirus)= Yellow Fever
Cause of common cold Rhinovirus (Picornavirus)
Virus has monkey reservoir Yellow Fever virus (Flavivirus)
¨Defective¨virus that requires HBV co-infection HDV (Delta Virus, ssRNA (-), enveloped)
RNA virus with 8 segments Orthomyxovirus
Paramyxovirus ssRNA (-), linear, nonsegmented, enveloped
Naked RNA Reo Picorna Hepe Calici
RNA that have reverse transcriptase HTLV- T cell Leukemia, HIV (Retrovirus)
Most important global cause of infantile gastroenteritis Rotavirus (Reovirus, 10-12 segments dsRNA, naked)
Major cause of acute diarrhea in the United States during winter, especially in day-care centers, kindergartens. Rotavirus (Reovirus, 10-12 segments dsRNA, naked)
Influenza viruses Orthomyxoviruses. Enveloped, negative single­ stranded RNA viruses with 8-segment genome.
Contains hemagglutinin (promotes viral entry) and neuraminidase (promotes progeny virion release) antigens. Influenza
Rapid genetic change Influenza
Influenza Vaccines 1. Killed: most frequently used 2. Reformulated¨the flu shot¨most likely to appear during flu season 3. Live,attenuated (temperature-sensitive mutant) Intranasal. Used in children.
Causes pandemics. Reassortment ofviral genome Genetic shift
Causes epidemics. Random mutations Genetic drift
Fever, postauricular adenopathy, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, fine truncal rash that starts at head and moves clown. Rubella (Togavirus)
All contain surface F (fusion) protein and form multinucleated giant cells Paramyxovirus (enveloped, nonsegmented, ssDNA (-))
Seal barking cough Croup, Parainfluenza= Paramyxovirus (enveloped, nonsegmented, ssDNA (-))
Respiratory tract infection, bronchiolitis, pneumonia in infants RSV= Paramyxovirus (enveloped, nonsegmented, ssDNA (-))
Prevents pneumonia caused by RSV infection in premature infants. Palivizumab (monoclonal antibody against F protein)
Rash presents last and spreads from head to toe. Includes hands and feet Measles; Paramyxovirus (enveloped, nonsegmented, ssDNA (-))
Parotitis, Orchitis and aseptic Meningitis. Mumps; Paramyxovirus (enveloped, nonsegmented, ssDNA (-))
Can cause sterility (especially after puberty). Mumps; Paramyxovirus (enveloped, nonsegmented, ssDNA (-))
Bullet-shaped virus Rabies (Rhabdovirus: ssRNA (-), linear, helical, enveloped)
Negri bodies Rabies (Rhabdovirus: ssRNA (-), linear, helical, enveloped)
Cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons infected commonly found in Purkinje cells of cerebellum Rabies (Rhabdovirus: ssRNA (-), linear, helical, enveloped)
Travels to the CNS by migrating in a retrograde fashion up nerve axons. Rabies (Rhabdovirus: ssRNA (-), linear, helical, enveloped)
More commonly from bat, raccoon, and skunk bites Rabies (Rhabdovirus: ssRNA (-), linear, helical, enveloped)
RNA picornavirus, Asymptomatic, Acute, Alone (no carriers), fecal oral transmission HAV
HBV DNA Hepadnavirus
Hepatitis virus that integrates into host genome, acts as oncogene HBV (DNA hepadnavirus)
HCV RNA Flavivirus
Hepatitis Chronic, Carcinoma, Carrier HCV
Its genetically unstable because it lacks proofreading 3´-->5´exonuclease activity in its RNA polymerase HCV
Defective virus, dependent on HBV superinfection HDV
HDV RNA delta virus
HEV RNA hepevirus
High mortality in pregnant women, Enteric, Expectant mothers, Epidemic HEV
HAV and HEV Fecal-Oral
Detect ACTIVE Hepatitis A Anti-HAV (IgM)
prior HAV infection and/or prior vaccination; protects against reinfection. Anti-HAV (IgG)
Antigen found on surface of HBV; indicates hepatitis B infection HBsAG
hepatitis B infection HBsAG
Antibody to HBsAg; indicates immunity to hepatitis B. Anti-HBs
Antigen associated with core of HBV. HBcAG
Antibody to HBcAg; IgM = acute/recent infection; IgG = prior exposure or chronic infection. Positive during window period. Anti-HBc
A second, different antigenic determinant in the HBV core. HBeAg indicates active viral replication and HIGH transmissibility HBeAg
Positive during window period. Anti-HBc
Immunity to hepatitis B. Anti-HBs
HIGH transmissibility HBeAg
Antibody to HBeAg; indicates LOW transmissibility Anti-HBe
During latent phase of HIV, virus replicates lymph nodes
Created by: heidy39
 

 



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