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Genetics

TermDefinition
homozygous when two alleles are the same or identical BB, rr, tt,GG
heterozygous when two alleles are different Gg, Hh, Tt
phenotype the physical appearance of a trait-yellow, tall, round, wrinkled
genotype the genetic make-up, the alleles (letters), Gg, TT, Rr, gg
dominant the trait that is expressed and only needs one capital letter
recessive the trait that is hidden unless both alleles are present bb, rr, gg, tt lowercase letters
alleles the alternate forms of a gene
incomplete dominance neither allele is completely dominant over another so the phenotype is a MIX of the two alleles, ex. red and white flowers make pink rr, ww, rw
codominance both alleles are dominant so in the heterozygous form you see both alleles. AB blood type
sex-linked traits occur on the X chromosome only
female XX
male XY
karyotype shows the chromosomes in an organism also sex of organism and any abnormalities or genetic disorders
independent assortment gene pairs segregate (separate) into gametes randomly and independent of each other GT, Gt, gT, gt
Punnett square used to predict the offspring and determine probability
Mendel father of genetics
GgTT x ggTt dihybrid cross
A, B, O, AB possible blood types
Created by: JMHSBIO