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Bio STAAR Cat#1

Reporting Category #1

TermDefinition
Biomolecules organic molecules which combine to form living organisms; includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
carbohydrates biomolecule of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen combined in 1:2:1 ratio; include simple and complex sugars; molecules which store energy, add structure, & provide sugars for DNA and RNA; monomer - monosaccharaide ; polymer - polysaccharide
lipids biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes fats,oils, waxes and sterols; important component of cell membranes
proteins biomolecule composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; made up of monomer amino acids; enzyme is an example
nucleic acids biomolecule made up of nucleotides; nucleotides contain a phosphate sugar and nitrogen base; examples include DNA and RNA
monomer single unit ; small piece of biomolecule
polymer multi piece unit; made up of smaller monomers
condensation A chemical reaction in which water or another simple substance is released by the combination of two or more molecules, aka dehydration synthesis
dehydration synthesis A chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules
hydrolysis The process of splitting a compound into fragments with the addition of water; a kind of reaction that is used to break down polymers into simpler units, e.g. starch into glucose.
organic molecule An organic compound always contains carbon; Examples : carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
prokaryotic an organism whose cell generally lacks a true nucleus Examples: bacterial cells
eukaryotic organism possessing a membrane-bound nucleus ; animals, plants, fungi, and protists
homeostasis The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls or feedback loops, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions ex: sweating when hot
energy conversion organelles Chloroplasts – Only in plant cells, these organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy that the cell can use. Mitochondria – The energy center of the cell. Changes food energy into chemical energy the cell can use.
transport of molecules organelles movement of nutrients & wastes must occur within the cell;lysosomes digest wastes; vacuoles stores & removes wastes;cell membrane controls movement of materials in and out of cell; endoplasmic reticulum transports materials inside of cell
synthesis of molecules organelles organelles within a cell must make molecules ; ribosomes make proteins; golgi body repackages proteins for different uses;
virus A submicroscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell. It is non-cellular but consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
lytic infection viral infection which immediately makes host sick by destroying cells
lysogenic infection viral disease which remain dormant for a time and causes no symptoms
human immunodeficiency virus HIV caused AIDS or Aquired Immune Deficiency by destroying a special white blood cell known as a Helper T cell
influenza viral disease caused by airborne transmission; vaccines must be taken annually to lower probability of contacting the "flu"
deoxyribonucleic acid double-stranded nucleic acid found in the nucleus which provides instruction for making proteins; provides hereditary information
ribonucleic acid single stranded nucleic acid made during transcription to provide template for making proteins at ribosome during translation
cell cycle components include interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis
interphase part of the cell cycle; resting stage of cell and preparation for mitosis; includes G 1 (duplication of organelles) S phase(replication of DNA) and G 2 (checking of replication)
mitosis part of cell cycle; division of the nucleus; includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
cytokinesis part of cell cycle; division of cytoplasm and organelles except nucleus
cell differentiation specialization of cells for a particular function
cancer uncontrolled cell division; creates tumors and interferes with normal cell function
Created by: McLeanScience