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Biology Review

food chain a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food web a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
trophic level feeding level in an ecosystem
producer an organism that makes its own food
consumer an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
herbivore organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
carnivore organism that obtains energy by eating animals
omnivore an animal that feeds on both animal and vegetable substances
parasite an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant)
host an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
predator any animal that lives by preying on other animals
prey animal hunted or caught for food
aquatic ecosystem an ecosystem that is water-based, either fresh water or salt water
terrestrial ecosystem an ecosystem on land
marine ecosystem An ocean (saltwater) ecosystem
freshwater ecosystem A river, lake, stream, or pond (not ocean) ecosystems
autotroph an organism that makes its own food
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food
energy pyramid a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web; the most available energy is at the bottom and the least is at the top
commensalism symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
decomposer An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
ecosystem collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
abiotic factors nonliving parts of an ecosystem
biotic factors living things in an ecosystem
competition the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
niche an organisms job or role in the ecosystem
limiting factor factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease
long-term environmental change environmental change that occurs slowly over time and effects organisms over generations
short-term environmental change environmental change that occurs quickly and effects organisms immediately
extinct no longer in existence
endangered in danger of becoming extinct
pollution Release of harmful materials into the environment
biodiversity the variety of species living within an ecosystem
abundance more than enough
runoff water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
artificial reefs a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water that is built by man
overharvesting catching or removing from a population more organisms than the population can replace
climate change long-term significant change in the weather patterns of an area
disease any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
invasive species plants and animals that have migrated to areas where they did not originate; often displace native species by outcompeting them for resources
dam a barrier constructed to contain the flow of water or to keep out the sea
water pollution pollution of the water in rivers and lakes
Created by: jistre
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