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Biology 12 test 1

Bilogy grade 12 canada test 1

What are the seven properties of life? Order, reproduction, growth and development, energy ulilization, response to environment, homeostasis, and adaptation
Which van de waal force is the strongest? Hydrogen bonds
London Forces very weak bonds between neutral molecules
Dipole-dipole forces partially positive and partially negative side attract
In terms of polarity, polar molecules are what, as opposed to nonpolar molecules which are what? polar molecules are hydrophilic, nonpolar molecules are hydrophobic
water is both _______ and ________. cohesive and adhesive
dynamic equilibrium when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
Acid substance that increases hydrogen concentration. it is sour, and has a ph under 7
Base substance that decreases hydrogen concentration. it is bitter, slippery and have a ph over 7
neutralization reaction reaction of and acid and base to form water and a salt
equilibrium state when opposing reactions occur at equal rates
Buffer chemicals that bond to H+ or release H+ to help balance neutral pH to remain constant.
Buffers behave like weak acids and bases
why do many proteins act as buffers? amino acids in their structure may be acidic and other may be basic
Hydrocarbon compounds that have a backbone of carbon
Alkanes saturated hydrocarbons with single bonds, in whose backbone may be straight or circular
Alkenes unsaturated hydrocarbons with double bonds, in whose location of bond is given in name
Alkynes unsaturated hydrocarbons with triple bonds
Functional groups reactive clusters of atoms attached to the carbon backbone
Bonding capacity the number of covalent bonds an atom can form
macromolecule large molecules composed of repeating subunits (monomers)
Condensation reaction assembles macromolecules and is and anabolic reaction that absorbs energy
Anabolic reaction produces large molecules from smaller subunits
Hydrolisis reaction breaks apart macromolecules, is a catabolic reaction that releases energy
What do both condensation and hydrolysis reactions require? enzymes to catalyze the reaction
name 3 examples of isomers that are carbs Glucose, galactose, fructose
Isomers contain the same number and types of atoms but have different arrangements, shapes and physical and chemical properties
Glycosidic linkage covalent bond formed through a condensation reaction that holds monosaccharides together
give some characteristics of maltose is an oligosaccharide made up two alpha-glucoses, that is held together by 1-4 glycosidic linkages
example of maltose used in production of beer, found in grains
give some characteristics of sucrose made of 1 alpha-glucose and 1 alpha-fructose, 1-2 linkage, and is table sugar
give some characteristics of lactose made of 1 beta-glucose and 1 beta-galactose and is found in milk
what are the 2 main uses for polysaccharides? energy storage (starch and glycogen) and structural support (cellulose and chitin)
Starch produced by plants and stored in plastids. Made of amylose and and amylopectin
Glycogen produced by animals and stored in liver and muscles
Cellulose makes up cell walls, staight chain polymer, does not form helixes
Chitin second most abundant material, used in exoskeleton of insects and in cell walls of fungi, N-group is attached to carbon 2
Lipid liked by nonpolar bonds, hydrophobic, and used for energy storage, building membranes, signalling molecules
Triglyceride 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol, not a polymer, non-polar and hydrophobic
Saturated Fat fatty acids are straight chain, solid at room temperature, produced by animals
Unsaturated Fat have double bonds, has a bend in fatty acid, liquid at room temperature, produced by plants
Hydrogenation produces trans fats, H-atoms are added to double bnds in unsaturated fats making them semi-solid
Esterification the forming of ester linkages by the condensation reaction between hydroxyl group of glycerol and carboxyl group of fatty acids
Amphipathic having hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
Phospholipid glycerol molecule attached to two fatty acid chains and a phosphate
Phopholipids produce spheres called ________ or produce _________ (ex. membrane)when in water micelles , bilayers
Sterols (steroids) compact hydrophic molecules containing 4 fused hydrocarbon rings and several functional groups
Which lipids lack a fatty acid component steroids
Cholesterol present in cell membrane to maintain fluidity and rigidity- can be good or bad- precurson to all steroid hormones
Waxes long chain fatty acid link to alcohols or carbon rings, firm, pliable consistency, used as coatings by plants
name the 7 uses of proteins support, transport, communication, receptors, movement, defence, reactions
What is the shape of the proteins determined by? the sequence of animno acids
peptide bonds the bonds that hold together proteins
What is protein denaturation? change in 3D shape due to temp, pH, etc... breaking the bonds and proteins loses its ability to function
What must larger proteins have in order to return to original state after being denatured "chaperone proteins"
Decomposition breaking peptide bonds from intense denaturation-irreversible
What is DNA Deoxyribosenucleic acid and is double stranded
What is a nucleotide? monomer subunit used to build DNA and RNA
all nucleotides compose of 1) phosphate group 2) pentose sugar 3) nitrogenous base
the ________ reaction forms a _______ bond and causes molecules to coil during the process of making DNA condensation, phosphodiester
the strands of DNA are considered what? antiparralel
what are the two families nitrogenous bases can be split into? purines (double ringed) and pyrimidines (single ringed)
how can we control metabolic pathways using enzymes? by restricting production and location of enzymes
Feedback inhibitor product of reaction acts as inhibitor, preventing cell from wasting chemical resources to make more products than needed
Allosteric site receptor site remote from active sit
Competitive inhibitor fits into active site and blocks substrate
noncompetitive inhibitor binds to enzyme and causes a change that alters active site
Cofactors non protein enzyme helper that may bind to active sites or substrates
induced fit model after a substrate binds to active site, enzyme changes shape to better fit substrate
how do enzymes lower activation energy? by binding substrates in correct orientation and applying stress to bonds, reducing thermal energy - allowing reactants to more easily become products
active site where a substrate binds to enzyme
Name three types of cellular work mechanical, transport, and chemical
what is ATP used for? for temporary storage, and acts like a rechargeable battery
what is phosphoylation? the free energy that is coupled with endergonic reactions that attached Pi to another molecules
What are redox reactions? chemical reactions involved the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
Oxidation loss of electrons
oxidizing agent substances that takes electrons
Reduction gain of electrons
Reducing agent substance that give electron
living systems are kept at ______ (products not allows to accumulate) disequilibrium
Energy coupling transfer of energy produced in one reaction to another
Endergonic reaction process that requires free energy to occur, anabolic, not spontaneous
Exergonic reaction process with a net release of free energy- catabolic, spontaneous
Entropy the measure of amount of disorder (universe favours its increase)
Enthalpy thermal energy or total heat in a system
Exothermic less energy is required to break bonds of reactants than is released
Endothermic energy required to break bonds of reactants is greater that is released
Transition state temporary condition where reactantbonds are breaking and product is forming
Activation energy energy required to break the bonds of reactants
Bond energy measure of stability of bond-energy required to break 1 mol of bond and energy when 1 mol is formed
Metabolism sum of all processes (anabolic and catabolic)
What is the first law of thermodynamics? energy can be transferred or transformed, cannot be creator destroed
Energy in the universe is _______--- constant
Created by: disturbedangel