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second stak

sensory is afferent
motor is efferent
both lmn have the same pathway. cord to skeletal muscle
separates motor and sensory areas central sulcus
separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres longitudinal cerebral fissure
partitions of dura mater comprised of what 3 things falx Cerebri, falx cerebelli, falx tentorium cerebelli
? separates the cerebral hemispheres falx cerebri
? separates the 2 cerebellar hemispheres falx cerebelli
? separates the cerebral cortex above and the cerebellum below tentorium cerebelli
basement membrane also called neurolemma/or endoneurium. found only in pns
connective tissue cells of the nervous system, don't conduct impulses, nervous system matures due to an increase in these cells. most numerous in the nervous system neurolglial cells
3 diff neuroglial cells in cns oligodendroglia, astocytes, microglia
smaller fewere, some are around axon, some in rows, between nerve fibers to hold fibers together oligodendroglia
produce multiple myelin segments (covers nerve fibers in brain and cord) oligodendroglia
? disease of oligoden multiple sclerosis
largest form sheath around brain capillaries; involved with brain barrier; allow nutrients in, waste out; produce scar tissue where CNS tissue removed astrocytes
small stationary cells, brain inflamed, phago microbes and cell debris microglia
form epithelial lining for fluid-filled ventricles of brain for central canal of cord ependymal cells
around cell bodies in the PNS, in ganglia so supportive and physical barrier function satellite cells
? found only in nerves of body (PNS), form basement membrane and myelin sheath, can regenerate because of 2nd covering Schwann cells
? controls motor frontal
? controls sensory parietal
? controls hearing temporal
? controls vision occipital
? controls emotions and memory limbic
? controls somatic and visceral function insula
dorsal = posterior
ventral = anterior
input to cord is by incoming sensory in the... posterior root of spinal nerve
the sensory cell body is located in the ? posterior root ganglia = swelling near cord
afferent synapse occurs in the ? posterior horn of the gray matter
? these neurons synapse with incoming and outgoing neurons interneurons
out put from the ant horn of the gray matter is by the motor or efferent neurons out the ant root of the spinal nerve
consists of tracts or columns (asced/desced) white matter
conduct pain temp, crude touch, tickle, itch and sex sens to thalamus lat spinothalamic tracts
conduct pain temp, crude touch, tickle, itch and sex sens from cord to thalamus ant spinothalamic tracts
post columns for discriminating touch, and proprioception fasciculi gracilis and cuneatus
sensory component of the muscular system, sense of movement and body parts proprioception
for unconscious kinesthesia spinocerebellar tracts
impulses down the cord from the brain are motor
axons from cell bodies in the cerebral cortex to the cord, for precise discrete, voluntary movement on the opposite side of body lateral corticospinal tracts
lateral corticospinal tracts cross in the medulla pyramids
ant corticospinal tracts axons from cell bodies in the cerebral cortex to the cord, for precise discrete, voluntary movement on the opposite side of body
ant corticospinal tracts cross in the cord
lat reticulspinal tracts facilitatory impulses to ant gray horn motoneurons to skeletal muscles
medial reticulspinal tracts inhibitory impulses to ant gray horn motoneurons to skeletal muscles
surround the cord meninges
collagenous conn tissue, stong durable dura matter
true epidural space around the dura of the spinal cord, not the brain, dura attaches to bone
arachnoid membrane encloses the subarachnoid space
subarachnoid space is filled with csf
covers organs of the cns and extends beyond the cord to anchor it, carries blood vessels into the brain and cord, inner most pia mater
denticulate ligaments ? thickening of Pia that fuses with arachnoid + dura mater that projects laterally b/n spinal nerve roots and protects against shock and sudden displacement
? where cord ends at lumbar 2 vertebrae
spinal nerve C8 merges ? between C7 and T1
how is CSF formed? by the filtration of blood in the choroid plexuses
choroid plexuses? network of capillaries from the Pia Mater into the ventricles
how does CSF travel? from lateral ventricles to the the interventricular foramen into 3rd ventricles into Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius into 4th ventricle, then into central canal of the cord and subarachnoid spaces
how is CSF absorbed? absorbed back into the blood thru the Arachnoid Villi (granulations) into venous sinuses
what is the purpose of CSF? functions as a protective cushion
Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid = excitatory NT
GABA and Glycine = inhibitory NT
Norepinephrine = monoamine for arousal
dopamine = monoamine for movement and emotions
Enkephalins and Endorphins = body opiates that inhibit pain
Substance P = body opiate that controls pain in the cord
most common NT = Acetylcholine (ACh)
where are NTs synthesized? axon terminals by enzymes
NTs are stored in... axon terminals
? cerebellum receives a lot of input from... vestibular system (inner ear). Also propeoceptors, cortex, and reticular system
Cerebullum functions: coordinates and controls smooth muscle movement and postural and equilibrium reflexes
Damage of cerebellum causes: ataxia, rebound, dysmetria, intention tremors, gait problems
ataxia is... muscle incoordination
rebound is... loss of antagonistic muscle coordination
dysmetria is... improper distance measuring
intention tremors are... when voluntary movement is attempted
Diencephalon is located ? between the Cerebrum and Midbrain
Diencephalon is comprised of ? the Thalaums and Hypothalamus
Thalamus is ? large, rounded mass of gray matter lateral to 3rd ventricle, 1 in each hemisphere.
Function of Thalamus is ? (4 of them) major sensory relay center= recognizes pain, heat, cold, touch, and pressure; involved in expressing emotions associated with sensations; partly involved in arousal and alerting mechanisms and complex reflex movement.
Function of Hypothalamus is ? (8 of them) regulates and coordinates the ANS, regulates pituitary's function, regulates temp, regulates water balance by checking blood's osmotic pressure, controls food intake, regulates gastric secretions, emotional expression of rage, anger, and sexual behavior,
Structure of Hypothalamus: includes gray matter around the optic chiasm, pituitary stalk, posterior lobe of the pituitary, mamillary bodies, and adjacent regions.
CN1 olfactory; smell; sensory
CN2 optic; sight; sensory
CN3 oculomotor; eye movement and focusing; motor
CN4 trochlear; eye movement and focusing; motor
CN5 trigeminal; sensory for head and neck, face and chewing; sensory and motor
CN6 abducens; eye movement and focusing; motor
CN7 facial; taste (ant. 2/3 of tongue) and face muscles and glands; sensory and motor
CN8 acoustic/vestibular cochlear; hearing and posture, balance; sensory
CN9 glossopharyngeal; swallowing and taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); motor and sensory
CN10 vagus; important in ANS, sensory, and motor to all thoracic and abdominal viscera; sensory and motor
CN11 accessory; swallowing and head movement; motor
CN12 hypoglossal; swallowing and speech; motor
Reticular Activating System comprised of... Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Amygdaloid Nuclei
Function of Reticular Activating System? Center for arousal/alerting, associated w/ levels of consciousness; all sensory systems have some input; anesthetics act by lowering levels of consciousness.
speech area? Broca
damage in Broca causes? aphasia
Aphasia is? inability to speak or write (but Broca aphasia able to understand)
Auditory area? Wernicke's
damage in Wernicke's causes? inability to speak or write, no comprehension
? PNS supportive cells satellite cell, Schwann cell, connective tissue
CNS involves what 2 areas? brain and spinal cord
PNS involves what 2 areas? ganglia and nerves
functional cell ofboth CNS and PNS? neuron
supportive cells of CNS? astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, microglial (neuroglia)
cell bodies of CNS? nucleus
cell bodies of PNS? ganglion
bundles of axons in CNS? tracts
bundles of axons in PNS? nerves
Epineurium? around the entire nerve (PNS only)
Perineurium? around the fasciculus (bundle of neurons); PNS only
Endoneurium? around one neuron (also called basement membrane and neurolemma); PNS only
? most numerous cell of nervous system neuroglial
? CNS supportive cells neuroglial cells
? microglia doesn't exist normally in the brain; derived from mesoderm, a phagocyte, it only appears when there is a lesion in the nervous system
the CNS cannot regenerate because... no basement membrane
? neural tube becomes CNS
? neural crest becomes PNS
maturation of the cerebral cortex in child development is due to... an increase of glial cells
plasticity is... the ability to develop new synapses and new circuits as part of the learning process
Myelination is not fully developed as an infant, therefore... walking and developing motor skills take time
? there is no connective tissue in CNS
? connects the cerebral cortex to the brain stem internal capsule (strokes occur here)
if frontal lobe is destroyed... total paralysis on opposite side of body
all conscious function is in the... cortex
the Central Sulcus divides the... Precentral gyrus (anterior;motor) and Postcentral gyrus (posterior, area for all sensations of the body); divides the frontal from the parietal lobes, motor vs. sensory areas
? the brain is ___ to pain insensitive
___ is sensitive to pain dura
CSF travel: lateral- 3rd- cerebral aqueduct- 4th- subarachnoid space
Conus Medullaris "V" tip of the cord
Cauda Equina "tail" of nerves that extend past the cord
Filum Terminale Pia anchors cord to the posterior side of coccyx
Coccygeal Ligament Filum Terminale anchors to this
Muscle spindles located in the muscle for reflexes (stretch) and also tells movement and speed
Joint capsule receptors tells the position of the joints
bare (free) nerve endings receptors for pain that respond to tissue damage
Dorsal root ganglion cell bodies of sensory (afferent) neurons
trigeminal ganglion cell bodies associated with sensory info for the head and neck
substantia gelantinosa pain control for spinal pathways; gelatin substance in the posterior horn of the cord; processing center
subnucleus caudalis pain control for cranial pathways
medial lemniscus projection tract for the 2nd neuron for discriminating touch and proprioception; travels from medulla to thalamus
majority are these? in CNS everywhere? in PNS in autonomic ganglia? mulipolar neuron
? functions for large automatic movement of skeletal muscle and muscle tone extrapyramidal system
descending motor tracts... Rubrospinal, Tectospinal, Vestibulospinal
Contralateral functions... opposite sides
Sequential movements as in writing
Substantia Nigra... subconscious muscle activity
Striatum... caudate and putamen
Parasympathetic craniosacral division; functioning under "normal" conditions
CN ganglia... cranial nerves 3,7,9, 10
Sympathetic thoracolumbar division (T1 to L3); "flight or flight" division; major function; vasoconstriction
Chain and other ganglia... sympathetic chain ganglion runs parallel to spinal cord
Pilomotor... there is a muscle going to the hair making it stand on end
Secretory... glands
Vasomotor... blood vessels
Satellite cell? blood brain barrier; phsycial metabolic nutrients in, waste out
Schwann cell? produces myelin and basement membrane; neurolemma and phagocytic degenerated axons
? 3 groups of collagen fibers epi-, peri-, endoneurium
? each fascicle surrounded by thicker collagen called perineurium
surrounding axon? myelin sheath
surrounding myelin sheath? basement membrane
innermost connective tissue? basement membrane
basement membrane secreted by? Schwann cell
? peri- and endoneurium are ______ for stretch wavy
? enlargement along the length of a tube (also contains NTs) varicosity
? phagocytes microglia
? forms multiple myelin segments oligodendrocytes
brain grows faster than... cranial vault (folds over itself)
? bundles of axons nerves
? group of cell bodies ganglia
2 areas of the spine that are enlarged... cervical and lumbar
fiber bundles under... gray matter
? subcortical matter white matter
? mostly involved in strokes middle cerebral
? drains the face, so infections can drain to meninges cavernous sinus
associated w/ pain control in the spine: substantia gelatinosa
associated with pain control in the cranial nerve: subnucleus caudalis
Vestibular input? from the semicircular canals in the ear for equilibrium
Proprioceptors input? from the sensory component in muscles
Upper motor neuron damage causes... spastic paralysis and increased reflexes
Lower motor neuron damage causes... flaccid paralysis and decreased reflexes
Extrapyramidal (basal ganglia) damage causes... tremor at rest (Parkinson's) and involuntary movements (Chorea)
Cerebellum damage includes... ataxia (failure of muscle coordination), rebound (loss of antagonist muscle coordination), dysmetria (improper distance measuring), intention tremor (arises or intensifies when a voluntary coordinated movement is attempted)
ANS regulates... visceral effectors (smooth and cardiac muscle, glands) to maintain or restore homeostasis
ANS is influenced by impulses from... frontal lobe and limbic system
what releases ACh? pre and post-ganglionic parasympathetic and pre-ganglionic sympathetic
what releases NE? post-ganglionic sympathetic
main function of sympathetic division? vasoconstriction
parasympathetic functions: dominates control of most visceral effectors (smooth and cardiac muscles and glands)
? under normal conditions parasympathetic
? under fight or flight sympathetic
parasympathetic is associated with 4 CNs... 3, 7, 9, 10
sympathetic division or thoracolumbar division, output travels with spinal verves t1 to l3
somatic nervous system supplies skin and skeletal muscles
has 1 neuron between cns and the effector somatic nervous system
has 2 neurons between cns and the effector ans
ans supplies effector, glands,cardiac,smooth muscles/ no skeletal muscle control
upper motor neuron involves pyramidal neuron/cerebral cortex
lower motor neuron involves brainstem and spinal cord
what are the 3 tracts assoc. with direct pthwy lat corticospinal, ant corticospinal, corticobulbar
corticobulbar terminates in the nuclei of cn 3,4,,5,6,7,9-12
extrapyramidal system or ?, involved with basal ganglia, cortical assoc with sequential movement and automatic movement, walking, laughing and muscle tone/indirect
the umn begins in the nuclei of brain stem
corticospinal tract is completely contralateral to the opposite trunk and limbs
pyramidal involved in direct pthwy for precise voluntary mvmnt
equilibrium sensing vestibular organs
proprioceptors information of what is happening in joints and muscles (spinocerebellar tracts)
info on what movmnts are planned cerebral cortex
saying for cn on old olympus towering tops a fin and german viewed awesome hops
sensory/motor saying some say marry for money but my brother says big boobs matter more
ipsilateral cerebellar
contralateral is cortex
conducts impulses to cord or brain afferent,sensory
conducts impulses away from cord/brain efferent/motor
receptor end of sensory nerve
effector skeletal muscle
where are most synapses axodendritic
bipolar 1 axon, 1 dendrite, associated with special senses=vision hearing, smell vestibular/balance
multipolar 1 axon, several dendrites (most numerous)
unipolar 1 process comes off neuron, divides into axon, 1 dendrite always sensory, in pns (ex. cell bodies are in the dorsal (posterior)root ganglion of the spinal nerves)
ascending is sensory
descending is motor
parts of reflex 2 styles: sensory and motor or sensory to interneuron to motor
internal carotid artery joins the circle of willis
basilar artery joins the circle of willis
circle of willis located at the base of the brain (inferior aspect)
travel in the cervical vertebrae's transverse foramen and then together form the basilar artery at the base of the brain vertebral arteries
dermatome area innervated by specific nerve,
white matter consists of myelinated fibers (high in fat)
gray matter is a cluster of cell bodies
brain stem is from the cord up/medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
Created by: ronrich
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