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2/3 Trimester Measurements, Placenta & Cord, IUGR, AFI Review

In what plane is brain anatomy and measurements assessed in? A transverse plane.
What membrane seperates the brain into two equal hemispheres? The midline echo (falx)or falx cerebri.
What does normal situs or fetal organs mean? The normal positioning of the fetal organs.
By what week of gestation do the cranial bones ossify? By the 12th week of gestation.
What is frank breech position? Fetus laying with the thighs flexed at the hips and the lower legs extended in front of the body and up in front of the head.
How can a vertex lie be confirmed? Proceeding fundally, if the fetal body is noted to follow the head.
How can the proper level be identified at which to measure the biparietal diameter and head circumference? Moving the transducer slightly inferior to the ventricular atrium identifies the area of the thalami and the ambient cisterns. This is the widest transverse diameter of the skull and the proper level for measurements.
What is the shape of the choroid plexus? It is tear-shaped.
What is the term for abnormally enlarged or dilated lateral ventricles? Ventriculomegaly
What is the normal size for the cisterna magna? 3 to 11 mm
What is a normal nuchal fold thickness for 20 weeks gestation? 5 mm or less
What are fetuses with a thickened nuchal skin at increased risk for? They are at an increased risk for aneuploidy.
What is micrognathia? A small chin.
What is macroglossia? A large tongue that persistently protrudes outside of the mouth.
Can fetal hair be visualized sonographically? Yes, usually you can visualize fetal hair when doing your cranial measurements but it must not be included in the biparietal diameter.
What is one of the most important landmarks when obtaining a abdominal measurement? The left portal vein.
Should the distal femoral epiphysis be included in the femoral length measurement? No
Is the tibia or fibula larger? Normally the tibia will be larger than the fibula.
What should the normal umbilical cord contain? Two arteries and one vein.
What is the major role of the placenta? To permit the exchange of oxygenated maternal blood with deoxygenated fetal blood.
What major functions does the amniotic fluid serve as during intrauterine life? 1) It allows the fetus to move freely within the amniotic cavity and 2) It maintains inter-uterine pressure and protects the developing fetus from injury.
What are the two types of IUGR? Symmetric and asymmetric IUGR
What is IUGR? Best described as a decreased rate of fetal growth.
Created by: mommy2bca