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Chapter 20


price strategy a basic, long-term pricing framework that established the initial price for a product and the intended direction for price movements over the product life cycle
price skimming a pricing policy whereby a firm charges a high introductory price, often coupled with heavy promotion
penetration pricing a pricing policy whereby a firm charges a relatively low price for a product initially as a way to reach the mass market
status quo pricing charging a price identical to or very close to the competition's price
unfair trade practice acts laws that prohibit wholesales and retailers from selling below cost
price fixing an agreement between two or more firms on the price they will charge for a product
predatory pricing the practice of charging a very low price for a product with the intent of driving competitors out of business or out of a market
base price the general price level at which the company expects to sell the good or service
quantity discount a price reduction offered to buyers buying in multiple units or above a specified dollar amount
cumulative quantity discount a deduction from list price that applies to the buyer's total purchases made during a specific period
noncumulative quantity discount a deduction from list price that applies to a single order rather than to the total volume of orders placed during a certain period
cash discount a price reduction offered to a consumer, an industrial user, or a marketing intermediary in return for prompt payment of a bill
functional discount (trade discount) a discount to wholesalers and retailers for performing channel functions
seasonal discount a price reduction for buying merchandise out of season
promotional allowance (trade allowance) a payment to a dealer for promoting the manufacturer's products
rebate a cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period
value-based pricing setting the price at a level that seems to the customer to be a good price compared to the prices of other options
FOB (free-on-board) origin pricing a price tactic that requires the buyer to absorb that freight costs from the shipping point
uniform delivered pricing a price tactic in which the seller pays the actual freight charges and bills every purchaser an identical, flat freight charge
zone pricing a modification of uniform delivered pricing that divided the U.S. (or the total market) into segments or zones and charges a flat freight rate to all customers in a given zone
freight absorption pricing a price tactic in which the sellers pays all or part of the actual freight charges and does not pass them on to the buyer
basing-point pricing a price tactic that charges freight from a given (basing) point, regardless of the city from which the goods are shipped
single-price tactic a price tactic that offers all goods and services at the same price (or perhaps 2 or 3 prices)
flexible pricing (variable pricing) a price tactic in which different customers pay different prices for essentially the same merchandise bought in equal quantities
price lining the practice of offering a product line with several items at specific price points
leader pricing (loss-leader pricing) a price tactic in which a product is sold near or even below cost in the hope that shoppers will buy other items once they are in the store
bait pricing a price tactic that tries to get consumers into a store through false or misleading price advertising the uses high-pressure selling to persuade consumers to buy more expensive merchandise
odd-even pricing (psychological pricing) a price tactic that uses odd-numbered prices to connote bargains and even-numbered prices to imply quality
price bundling marketing two or more products in a single package for a special price
unbundling reducing the bundle of services that comes with the basic product
two-part pricing a price tactic that charges two separate amounts to consume a single good or service
consumer penalty an extra fee paid by the consumer for violating the terms of the purchase agreement
product line pricing setting prices for an entire line of products
joint costs costs that are shared in the manufacturing and marketing of several products in a product line
delayed-quotation pricing a price tactic used for industrial installations and many accessory items in which a firm price is not set until the item is either finished or delivered
escalator pricing a price tactic in which the final selling price reflects cost increases incurred between the time the order is placed and the time delivery is made
price shading the use of discounts by salespeople to increase demand for one or more products in a line
Created by: bdavid16
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