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Evolution

QuestionAnswer
Any evidence of an organism that lived long ago. fossils
Determining the age of a fossil by its position in sediment (rock). Relative Dating
Determining a numerical age of a fossil by using radioactive isotopes. Absolute Dating
During radioactive decay, the unstable _________ element decays into a stable _________ element. parent, daughter
The amount of time it takes 1/2 of the parent element to decay into the daughter element. half-life
A group of organisms that has the ability to reproduce and have fertile offspring. species
A group of organisms that is made up of members from the same species. population
A change in the genetic make-up of an organism over time, leading to a diversity among organisms. evolution
Scientist who used his findings to formulate the theory of Natural Selection. Charles Darwin
Process by which the survival and reproduction of a population is determined by those best suited for the environment. natural selection
Individuals with the best _________, survive and reproduce genes (which code for traits, and thus adaptations).
Any structure or behavior that allows an organism to better respond to the environment. adaptation
__________ is the basis of evolution. Genetics
Genetically diverse populations are MORE/LESS likely to survive. MORE
Process by which new species arise. speciation
View of evolution that says speciation is gradual and continuous. Phyletic Gradualism
View of evolution that says it occurs in rapid bursts of speciation followed by long periods of no change. Punctuated Equilibrium
Scientist credited with coming up with Punctuated Equilibrium. Stephen Jay Gould
Characteristics that are similar in function and structure; likely came from the SAME ancestor. Homologous structures
Characteristics that are similar in function but dissimilar in structure; likely did NOT come from the same ancestor. Analogous structures
Scientist whose view of evolution is no longer considered valid. Lamarck
Lamarck suggested that organisms pass on traits they ________________ during their lifetime to their offspring. acquired/developed
Similarities between species which protects at least one of the two species. mimicry
Structures in modern organisms that are no longer functional, but were likely functional in their ancestors. vestigial organs
Diagrams that show evolutionary relationships among different organisms. cladograms
The two main goals of living organisms are to __________________ & ________________. survive, reproduce
Two things that adaptations depend on include: rate of reproduction and environmental pressures
Related organisms that have developed different traits over time. divergent evolution
Unrelated organisms that have developed similar traits over time. convergent evolution
Created by: ballb