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human anatomy

parts of the skeletal system bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments,
Two subdivisions of the skeleton Axial skeleton, Appendicular skeleton
The adult skeleton has how many bones 206
Two types of bones tissue compact bones, Spongy bones
Spongy Bones small needle like pieces of bone with many open spaces
classification of bones long, short, flat, irregular
long bones typically longer than wide, shaft with heads situated at both ends, contain mostly compact bones.
short bones generally cube shape, contain mostly spongy bone, includes bones of the wrist and ankles, sesamoid bones are a type of short bone.
flat bones Thin flattened and usually curved, Two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone.
Irregular Bones Do not fit into other bone classification for example vertebrae, Hip bones
Diaphysis Is at the Shaft, composed of compact bone
Epiphysis At the ends of long bone, and composed mostly of spongy bone
Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis
Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone
Arties Supply bone cells with nutrients
Articular Cartilage Covers the external surface of the epiphyses, made of hyaline cartilage, decreases friction at joint surfaces.
Epiphyseal Plate Flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young growing bone.
Epiphyseal Line Remnant of the epiphyseal plate, seen in adult bones.
Osteon (Haversian System) A unit of bone contaning the central canal
Central (Haversian Canal) Opening in the center of an Osteon
Perforating (Volkman Canal) Canal Perpendicular to the central canal, carries blood vessel and nerves.
Lacunae Cavities containg bone cells
Lamellae Rings around the central canal, sites of lucanae
Epiphyseal Plates Allows for lengthwise growth of long bones during childhood
Appositional Bones grow in width
Osteocytes Mature bone cells
Osteoblast Bone forming cells
Osteoclast giant bone destroying cells
Fracture break in the bone
Closed Fracture Break that does not penetrate
Open Fracture Broken bone penetrate through the skin.
Comminuted Bones break into many fragments
Compression Bones are crushed
Depressed Broken bone portion is pressed inwaard
Impacted broken bone ends are forced into eachother
Spiral Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to the bone
Green stick Bones breaks completely
Axial Skeleton skull, vertebral column, bony thorax
Skull Two sets of bones Cranium, Facial Bones
Nine Vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones Sacrum, Coccyx
Primary Curvature Spinal Curvatures of the thoracic and sacral area present from birth form a C shape
Secondary Curvature are the spinal curvatures of the lumbar region develops after birth.
Appendicular Skeleton Composed of 126 bones limbs, pectorals girdle, pelvic girdle
Carpals Wrist eight bones
Mtecarpals Palm Five per hand
Phalanges 14 phlanges in each hand in each finger three bones, in the thumb two bones
Tarsal seven bones
Metatarsals five bones form the sole of the foot
Phalanges form 14 bones from the toes
Synarthroses Immovable Joints
Amphiathroses Slightly Moveable
Diathroses Freely moveable Joints
Fibrous Joints Generally immovable
Cartilaginous Joints Immovable or slightly moveable
Synovial Joints Freely moveable
Syndesmoses Allows more movement than sutures but still immobile.
Gomphosis Immobile
Synchrondrosis don't move
Symphysis Slightly Moveable
Synovial Joints Articulating bones are seperated by a joint cavity
Synovial Fluid Found in the joint cavity
Gouty Arthritis Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood
Created by: sheilak006