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Microbiology Test 2


who presents antigen to the T cells? Macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
what is immunology? body's defenses mechanisms to protect itself from non self items which may be invading microorganisms, non self materials
what are the two branches of the immune system? innate immunity and adaptive immunity
what are the primary structures of the lymphatic system? bone marrow, thymus
what are the secondary structures of the lymphatic system? lymphatics, fluids, cells
what are dendritic cells? cells involved in early immune reactions with foreign tissue, APC
what are macrophages? largest phagocytes, ingest and kill foreign cells, required for certain specific immune reactions
what are B cells? creates plasma cells and antibodies in the lymph node when stimulated
what are monocytes? blood phagocytes that rapidly leave the circulation mature into macrophages and dendritic cells
what are natural killer cells? related to T cells but displaying no specificity active against cancerous and virally infected cells
what is innate immunity? pre exsisting antigen, non specific defenses, present at birth prior to pathogen exposure, rapid response within hours, not enhanced by exposures, limited number of specificities
what in adaptive immunity? immune system responds to an antigen in a specific manner to neutralize the threat and retains memory, slow response, variable, improves during response and numerous highly selective specificities
what is the first line of defense in innate immunity? any barrier that blocks invasion at the portal of entry, nonspecific line of defense that limits access to internal tissue but does not involved recognition of specific substance, like skin
what is an example of mechanical resistance in innate immunity? skin cells joined by tight junctions, flow of fluids washing surface and getting rid of pathogens like tears and perspiration
what is an example of a chemical barrier in innate immunity? pH change, acidity, proteases and enzymes in gastrointestinal tract, lysozymes in tears
what is an example of microbiological barrier in innate immunity? native flora that protects us from pathogen growth like in the skin and gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and urogentical tract
what is the second line of defense in innate immunity? more internalized system of protective cells and fluids which includes inflammation and phagocytosis, reaction is still nonspecific
what happens during non specific second line of defense in innate immunity? injury causes narrowing of BV until clot, release of cytokines by macrophages that are eating bacteria. cytokines god into blood stream and call for help from neutrophils in lymph node. increased diameter of BV allows permeability and edema and swelling
what are cytokines? a protein or polypeptide produced by WBC that regulate host defenses
what happens during phagocytosis in second line defense in innate immunity? compliment binds to bacteria and coats the surface which attracts phagocyte. Phagocyte binds to compliment with its receptor on its self surface and engulfs bacteria. Initiates acid dump which kills bacteria and releases cytokines to recruit neutrophils
what causes inflammation? not caused by bacteria but caused by the body's response to the bacteria during normal healing process
what is adaptive immunity? activated when the innate system does not adequately handle infection,
how is adaptive immunity activated? macrophages and dendritic cells pick up bacteria pieces and take pieces through lymphatics to lymph node to activate B and T cells
what will stimulated B cells do during adaptive immunity? create plasma cells which make antibody that goes out through the vein, B cells stay in the lymph node
what will stimulated T cells do during adaptive immunity? divide and leave via efferent lymphatic vessel or vein and circulate through the body
how do T cells circulate (pathway) and why do they do this? circulate to the subclavian vein back through the arteries to lymph node, surveillance of the entire body for the pathogen
what is opsonization? protein binds to microbe making it easier to phagocytize, coats the bacterial surface
what are the products of innate immunity always? inflammation: dilation of arterioles and release of histamine opsonization: coating bacteria cytolysis: forming holes in microbe membranes causing leakiness and cell rupture
which pathways are activate first, second and third in innate immunity? alternate pathway is first, lectin pathway is second and classical pathway is third
what initiates alternate pathway activation during innate immunity? activation of C3, c- reactive protein or antibody binds to specific antigen on pathogen surface
what happens during alternate pathway activation during innate immunity C3 is cleaved and C3b and C3a are formed, C3B coats pathogen, C3a goes off to act as an anaphylatoxin. Macrophage takes the pathogen up by endocytosis
what initiates lectin pathway to activation during innate immunity? mannose binding lectin binds to pathogen surface
what initiates classical pathway activation during innate immunity? C1 activations which in turns actives C3a, C4a, and C5a
all pathways in innate immunity lead to... compliment activation, cleavage of C3 to C3a and C3b
what is the purpose of C3b in innate immunity? covalently bonds to surface components of pathogen and causes recruitment of inflammatory cells (opsonization) which facilitates in phagocytosis
what is the membrane attack complex or MAC in innate immunity during alternative pathway? C3 is activated and activates C5b which interacts with C6, C7, C8, C9 which forms the complex. It is stuck in the lipid bilayer of the pathogen and allows everything in and out of the cell
what do C3a and C5a act on in innate immunity? act on blood vessels to increase vascular permeability and allow increase fluid leakage and compliment, stimulate migration of monocytes and neutrophils
summary of what happens during alternative pathway (cascade) during innate immunity? opsonizaed microbial cells, formation of MAC, recruitment of inflammatory cells
what are PAMPs? pathogen associated molecular patterns molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens which are distinguishable from host molecules
what does cytokine TNF alpha do in innate immunity? increase permeability
what does cytokine IL-6 do in innate immunity? increases permeability
what does cytokine CXCL8 do in innate immunity? attracts neutrophils and basophils
what does cytokine IL-12 do in innate immunity? activates natural killer cells
how do neutrophils know where to go and how are they recruited in innate immunity? selection are produced in response to cytokines on the surface of blood vessels which bind to intergrins on neutrophils surface. They slow and stop and interact with cemokine CXCL8 receptor and diapedesis (endocytosis) occurs
what is the order of neutrophil recruitment in innate immunity? rolling adhesion, tight binding, diapedesis, migration
what does cytokines IL-1 and IL-6/ TNF alpha do for bone marrow endothelium during innate immunity? neutrophil mobilization which causes phagocytosis
what does cytokines IL-1 and IL-6/ TNF alpha do for the hypothalamus during innate immunity increased body temperature which decreases viral and bacterial replication
what does cytokines IL-1 and IL-6/ TNF alpha do for fat and muscle during innate immunity protein and energy metabolism to generate increased body temperature which decreases viral and bacterial replication
what is IL-6 effect on the liver in innate immunity? macrophage produce IL-6 which act on hepatocytes to induce synthesis of mannose binding lectin, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (which coats surface of bacteria)
C-reactive protein and mannose binding lectin both lead to what in innate immunity? compliment activation and activation of C1 complex
virus injected cell triggers the production of what during innate immunity? interferon alpha and beta
what do interferon alpha and beta do in innate immunity? induce resistance to viral replication in all cells, increase expression of ligands for receptors on NK cells, activate NK cells to kill virus infected cells
what happens when a virus infects a cell in innate immunity virus goes to nucleus and cause production of interferon beta which goes out into the environment causing an effect on uninfected cells producing interferon alpha
what do natural killer cells do in innate immunity? survey the body for cells that do not express right ligands, they are activated by interferon
how is adaptive immunity different that innate immunity? specify for particular foreign molecules (antigens) which also involves distinguishing self from non-self
alternative pathway in innate immunity (chart) pathogen surface creates local environment conducive to complement activation
lectin pathway in innate immunity (chart) mannose binding lectin binds to pathogen surface
classical pathway in innate immunity (chart) C-reactive protein or antibody binds to specific antigen on pathogen surface
cleave of C3 to C3a and C3b in innate system always causes recruitment of inflammatory ells, opsonization of pathogens, facilitating uptake and killing by phagocytes, perforation of pathogen cell membranes
what do C3a, C4a and C5a do in response in innate immunity dilation of arterioles release of histamine from mast cells chemotaxis of phagocytes
what does C3b do in innate immunity? opsonization of microbes, promotes phagocytosis
what does C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 do in innate immunity? form MAC, which causes cytolysis of microbe
what happens during cell mediate immunity in adaptive immunity? cytotoxic T cells directly attack invading antigens effective against intracellular pathogens (viruses, bacteria or fungi) and cancer cells or foreign tissue transplants
what happens during antibody mediate immunity or humoral immunity in adaptive immunity? B cells transform into plasma cells with secrete antibodies antibody binds to an antigen, works well against extracellular pathogens like bacteria
Maturation of B and T cells both develop in red bone marrow, B cells complete their development in red bone marrow but T cells migrate from red bone marrow into thymus
CD4 is what type of cell? Helper T cell
CD8 is what type of cell? Cytotoxic
what are antigens? molecules or btw of foreign material that provoke immune response, ability to react to cells or antibodies and get past bodies nonspecific defenses
receptor specificity is ______ in innate immune system? pathogen dependent
what is clonal selection in innate immunity? lymphocytes proliferates (divides) and differentiates (forms highly specialized cells) in response to a specific antigen
what do B cells need in order to produce memory cells in adaptive immunity? stimulation by helper T cells
what are major histocompatibility complexes or MHCs in adaptive immunity? unique markers on the surface of each of your body cells except red blood cells, normal function is to recognize that an antigen is foreign and not self
what are MHC class I in adaptive immunity? built into the plasma membranes of all body cells except red blood cells
what are MHC class II in adaptive immunity? appear on the surface of antigen presenting cells like B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells
what class of MHC does exogenous antigens use in adaptive immunity? MHC II
what happens during exogenous antigens in adaptive immunity? ingestion of the antigen by phagocytosis or endocytosis, digestion into peptide fragments, synthesis of MHC II molecule and peptide fragments, MHC II is inserts into the plasma membrane and presented to T cells
what happens during endogenous antigens in adaptive immunity? within infected cello protein digesting enzymes split antigen into peptide fragments, infected cell synthesizes MHC I molecules and peptide fragments are bound to them, complexes are inserted into plasma membrane
what class of MHC does endogenous antigens in adaptive immunity use? MHC I
CD8 cells recognize which MHC complex in adaptive immunity? MHC class I
CD4 cells recognize which MHC complex in adaptive immunity? MHC class II
what is the ubiquitous response of the innate immune system? flushing fluids, chemicals on the surface, compliment trying to get rid of the pathogen immediately (0-4 hrs), local site
what is induced responses of innate immune system? longer response but still innate, produce cytokines that bring in neutrophils and macrophages that try to get rid of the pathogen, recruitment (4-96 hrs)
what is adaptive response? do not get enough response to get rid of the pathogen from innate system, infection starts because pathogen gets to lymph node. activation of B and T cells and clonal expansion (<96)
what is protective immunity? when adaptive response is initiated so if you see that pathogen again you can get rid of it in a quicker time farm than when you first saw it, antibody will still be floating around 2-3 months
what is immunological memory? memorize pathogen years after you see it, antibody is no longer floating around so have to stimulate B cells again
what is passive immunity? administration of preformed antibodies, consequence of one person receiving preformed immunity made by another person
what is natural passive immunity? placental transfer of maternal antibodies
what is artificial passive immunity example? antitoxins from animals, human gamma globulin or vaccines
what is natural active immunity? develops after recovering from infection
what is artificial active immunity? inoculation of part of an organism or whole organism which is dead or alive
what is type I hypersensitivity reaction? anaphylatic, IgE degranulation of mast cells
what is type II hypersensitivity reaction? cytotoxic, IgG or IgM bind to target cells, antibody mediate cell lysis
what is type III hypersensitivity reaction? antigen antibody complexes builds up
what is type IV hypersensitivity reaction? sensitization of T cells, lymphocytes and macrophages come in seen in TB test, contact dermatitis or cheap earrings
IgM first response to pathogen first time you make antibody
IgG secondary response to pathogen, second time you make antibody
IgE mast cells, hypersensitivity reactions
IgA mucosal surfaces, bind organisms to keep them from coming in
Created by: Chobchi


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