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Science Unit 4

Science Unit 4-7 th grade

DNA genetic material that store information passed on from the parent, based in the nucleus, *doubled stranded *deoyxribose sugar
RNA is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, *Role in Protein Synthesis *takes place on the Ribosomes in cystoplasm. *starts in nucleus is the one single stranded, *ribosome suga
Relationship between Amino Acids and Protiens The order nucleotides determine the order of amino acids, which then form protiens
Main function of a gene controls the production of proteins in the organism's cell
Codons a sequence of three nucleotides that together form an unit of genetic code in DNA or RNA molecules *used to IDENTIFY amino Acids in the mRNA
Anti-codons a sequence of three codons in the tRNA molecules that correspond to complementary codon in the mRNA *Used to CARRY the amino acids
Protein Synthesis Production of protein is called
where does protein production take place on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
mRNA (messenger) COPIES the instruction of the DNA in the nucleus and carries these codon to the ribosome part of transcription process
tRNA (transfer) CARRIES the Amino acids to the ribosomes. shaped a certain way that one end can attach to a specific amino acid- other side is a triple base (anti-codon)
rRNA (ribosomal) molecule in the cell that COMPOSES the ribosomes
how do the bases differ in DNA and RNA? DNA- ATCG-Thymine RNA- AUCG- uracil
Transcription 1 strand of DNA molecule is used to make a single-strand molecule of RNA The process of transferring the nucleotides from DNA to the codon RNA. ONLY individual genes are transcribed, not all of DNA A-U, T-A, G-C mRNA
Replication DNA copies itself before the cell divides 1. 2 DNA strands separate. 2. nucleotides match up to the open strand 3. c-G, T-a 4. 2 identical DNA molecules are formed. 5. each molecule has 1 old strand and 1 new strand
How many templates are used in replication? 2 templates
what does DNA replication produce? 2 identical DNA molecules following the rules of pairing
where does DNA replication happen? Interphase (S phase)
Semi-Conservative model Watson and Crick showed the two strands of the parental molecule separate and each function as a template for synthesis of a- new complementary strand
translation Assembly of the Amino ACIDS To MAKE PROTEINS Replication and transcription involved translating along information that is coded in the language of nucleotides bases to Amino acids. 3 base= 1 Amino Acid tRNA
Where does translation take place proteins are made on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Where does Transcription take place in the nucleus
Ribosomes are made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins
What dos Translation produce assembles the amino acids into their proper sequence to form protein
steps of Protein synthesis 1 mRNA Transcription (copy of the DNA to mRNA) 2. mrNA attaches to Ribosome in cytoplasm 3. Translation (copy of the codon to anticodon to carrying amino acids, to form protien)
Start codon AUG (MET)
Stop codon UAA, UAG, UGA
mutation Changes made to the DNA
what percentage of DNA in the person's cell are the same 99.9%
What percentage of the DNA in a person's cells are genes? 5%
3 possible outcomes of mutation no effect, minor, great
no effect (mutation) Mutation does not change protein. it stays neutral- since some amino acids have more than one code, a mutation may not change the resulting protein.
Minor (mutation) a change in the gene can affect apperance, skin color, eye color
Great(major mutation) causes genetic disorders- passed down to offspring by germ (gamete) cell. seffects can be good, plant having increase resistance to diseases or bad to have an illness.
what proof reads DNA certain enzyemes
are all mutations harmful no some can be a benefit to the organism, to make them resistance to a pesticides or other disease only 5% of the human DNA is genes, if it occurs in the noncoding region of DNA, then chances are the mutation will have no effect.
Mutation in somatic cells mutation of the body cells
mutation in the Germ cells mutation in the sex cells, gametes more harmful. they can be passed on to offsprings.
Chromosomal mutations changes the structure of the chromosomes *loss or gain
what are the 5 main types of chromosomal mutation? Deletion, inversion, duplication, translocation, non-disjunction
Deletion (chromosomal mutation) due to breakage of chromosome, a piece of the chromosome is lost
Inversion (chromosomal mutation) Chromosome segment breaks off, segment flips around backwards, segment reattaches
Duplication(chromosomal mutation) occurs when a gen sequence is repeated
Translocation (chromosomal mutation) involves 2 chromosomes that are not homologous, part of the one chromosomes is transferred to another chromosomes
non-disjunction (chromosomal mutation) failure of the chromosome to separate during meiosis. causes the gamete to have too many or too few chromosomes
Gene mutation *change in the nucleotides sequence of genes * may only involve a single nucleotide, *may be due to copying errors, chemicals or virus
prime time for mutations to occure meiosis
5 main types of gene mutation Point mutation, frameshift, insertion, deletion, subsitution
point mutation (gene mutation) change of a SINGLE(one) nucleotide, includes: deletion, insertion or substitution of one of the nucleotides
Frameshift (gene mutation) Changes the "reading frame"- like changing a a sentence *includes:Insertions, Deletions *proteins builds incorrectly
deletion (gene mutation) 1 amino acide is missing from mutant protein
insertion (gene mutation) a whole new amino acid is added
substitution (gene mutation) when a base pair is substituted and a new codon codes for a different amino acid is used
what is a genetic disorder? can be inherited, *a disease or condition that results from mutations that affect the normal functioning of a cell
3 main types of Genetic Disorders Autosomal recesssive, Autosomal Dominant, sex-linked
Autosomal recessive (genetic) if both parents are heterzygous, the child will have 25% chance of being affected, might not be known
autsomal dominant (genetic) trait typically appears in every generation.
sex-linked (genetic) Males show the disorder more than female, Son can not inherit disorder from dad. Because males only have one Xchromosome, males are more likely than females to have sex-linked trait that is controlled by recessive alleles
Cancer *multiple series of mutations *occurs in replication (DNA)
Multiple alleles 3 or more forms a gene that codes for a single trait
What makes up blood Red blood cells, White blood cells, Plasma, Platelets
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) The most abundant cells in our blood. They produce in the bone marrow. Contain protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) They are the part of the immune system and destroys infectious agents called pathogens
Plasma This is the yellowish liquid portion of the blood that contains the electrolytes, nutrients and vitamins, hormones, clotting factors and proteins (antibodies) to fight infections
Platelets (Thrombocytes) Clotting factors that are carried in the plasma, they clot together in a process called coagulation to seal the wound.
What are the four blood types A,B, AB,O- see your card
universal donor Blood type O
Universal Receiver Blood type AB
Rh Factor? The presence of protein or lack of it in the blood RH+- presence of protein RH- no protein
Blood Transfusion a procedure in which blood is given to a patient through an intravenous(IV) line in one of the blood vessels
What is a carrier? a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele. although they do not have the trait, they can pass the recessive allele on to their offspring
solve blood type, sex-linked trait and punnet squares autosomals show different pedigree charts than sex-linked
Pedigree a chart showing the genetic connection between two individuals- *genetic family tree
tell difference between pedigree chart on automsomal recessive and dominant Rr and RR and rr
Karyotype *picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell *arranged as pairs *can reveal if the baby has the correct number of chromosomes and if it is a boy or girl 1-22 Autosome 23- sex chromosomes
amniocetesis a sample of the fluids that surrounds the fetus is removed by a large needle
selective breeding? Process of selecting and breeding parent organisms to pass on particular traits to the offsprings- two types- inbreeding and hybridzation
inbreeding involves crossing 2 individuals that have identical or similar sets of alleles fast horse crossed by fast horse is a fast horse
hybridization involves 2 genetically different individuals, with results to bred to have best trait of of both parents- usually breeding dissimilar to parent *corn- resists disease crossed with corn many kernals= corn resist disease and produces many kernals *animal
advantage of selective breeding to DNA causes certain alleles to become more common in particular breed
Genetic Engineering Genetic splicing-The process in which a sequence of DNA from an organism is first isolated, for a specific trait
3 steps of Genetic engineering 1. isolate DNA, 2.Insert DNA in from another organism 3. The new DNA will reproduce and new cells will have the engineered DNA
what are risk and benefits with genetic engineering? *Benefit-more food, new medicines, insulin, insect resistant plant with less environmental change. *Con-unknown effects on humans and ecosystem
Cloning is a technique that uses technology to make copies of DNA * used to produce organisms with desired traits. (genetically identical to the organism it was produced)
Dolly and how was she made? first clone of an adult mammal ever produced 1. removed egg from sheep 2.cell's nucleus was replaced with 6 year old sheep 3.egg placed in 3 sheep uterus 4.5 months later Dolly was born
DNA fingerprinting DNA fingerprints is unique to individual, used to identify child's biological dad each band represents a fragment of DNA *examines the bands in the diagram of a gel electroporesis
Genome is all the genetic material in organism. most challenging project undertaken
Blood Type O Genotype ii
Blood Type A Genotype I^AI^A or I^Ai
Blood type B Genotype I^BI^B or I^Bi
Blood Type AB Geneotype I^AI^B
hello my name is madison madison kohl
Created by: Flynnfamily