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Genetics

QuestionAnswer
The study of heredity (passing of traits from parents to offspring). Genetics
Physical features that are inherited (Ex. hair color) Characteristics
Different forms of a characteristic (Ex. Blonde, red, brown, or black hair) Traits
Different versions of genes that determine a trait. Alleles
An individual with two of the same alleles (Ex. BB or bb) Homozygous or purebred
An individual with two different alleles (Ex. Bb) Heterozygous or hybrid
An organism's genetic makeup (TT, Tt, or tt). Genotype
An organism's physical traits, what it looks like (yellow body, blue skin, etc.) Phenotype
Scientist who used math to explain breeding patterns in pea plants - "Father of Genetics" Gregor Mendel
Segment of DNA that codes for a characteristic in an organism. Gene
The allele that will always be expressed if it is present. Dominant
The allele that will only be expressed if the dominant allele is NOT present. Recessive
HETEROZYGOUS or HOMOZYGOUS? RR HOMOZYGOUS (dominant)
HETEROZYGOUS or HOMOZYGOUS? Rr HETEROZYGOUS
HETEROZYGOUS or HOMOZYGOUS? rr HOMOZYGOUS (recessive)
A Punnett Square that compares just 1 trait. Monohybrid cross
A Punnett Square that looks at 2 traits at once. Dihybrid cross
A type of inheritance in which neither allele is dominant over another, resulting in a 3rd phenotype. Incomplete Dominance
A type of inheritance in which more than 2 alleles are present. Multiple Alleles
A type of inheritance in which 2 dominant alleles are BOTH expressed. Codominance
A type of inheritance in which more than one gene codes for a particular trait. Polygenic Inheritance
A type of inheritance in which the genes for a trait are located on the sex chromosomes. Sex-Linked Inheritance
One of Mendel's Laws that states that the allele a parent passes on to the offspring is chosen at random. Law of Segregation
One of Mendel's Laws that states that traits are passed on independently of each other. Law of Independent Assortment
A chart used to diagnose chromosome abnormalities. Karyotype
Male sex chromosomes XY
Female sex chromosomes XX
Sex chromosomes of Turner Syndrome X or XO
Sex chromosomes of Klinefelter Syndrome XXY
Sex chromosomes of Jacobs Syndrome XYY
Another name Down Syndrome Trisomy 21
The failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis. nondisjunction
Created by: ballb