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Neurogenic Disorders

Neuroanatomy, related anatomy, Aphasia, TBI, Motor speech disorders, Dementia

Resonation process by which the voice or laryngeal tone is modified by various supralaryngeal cavities and structures.
Medulla Oblongata in brainstem fires impulses to respiratory muscles when an excessive amount of carbon dioxide in the blood creates a need for oxygen.
Adduct Move toward the midline
Abduct Move away from the midline. VF are this way when breathing.
Functions of Larynx Closure of the trachea so food and other substances do not enter the lungs, produce sound for speech, produce cough reflex to expel foreign substances that accidentally enter trachea, closure of VF to build subglottic pressure for excretion and lifting
Cricothyroid muscle lengthens and tenses the VF and attached to cricoid and thyroid cartilages.
What innervates most intrinsic laryngeal muscles? (responsible for controlling sound production) recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of CN X. Cricothyroid is innervated by external branch of superior laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus.
Posterior Cricoarytenoid muscle contracts abduction of vocal folds
Function of Extrinsic laryngeal muscles support the larynx and fix its position. Have one attachment to structure within larynx and one to a structure outside. all are attached to hyoid bone and lower or raise position of larynx within the neck
3 Layers of VF Epithelium-outer cover, lamina propria-middle layer, vocalis muscle-body which provides stability and mass
Cortical Areas Involved in Speech-motor control and phonation primary motor cortex, Broca's area, somatosensory cortex, supplementary motor cortex
Cerebellum and Speech regulates motor movement and critical to control of speech movement. Key to the coordination of laryngeal muscles for adequate phonation. Key to respiration also.
CN X SLN (superior laryngeal nerve) sensory info to larynx and motor innervation to cricothyroid
CN X RLN (recurrent laryngeal nerve) motor innervation to muscles attached to arytenoid and sensory info below the VFs
Innervation of Pharyngeal Muscles CN X & XI
Innervation of Muscles that Elevate Mandible CN V Facial (masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid)
Innervation of Tongue Muscles Intrinsic and Extrinsic CN XII Hypoglossal
Orbicularis Oris Lip muscle innervated by VII Facial
Buccinator Large flat muscle which composes the cheeks, innervated by VII Facial
Two important neurotransmitters in the motor system Dopamine and acetylcholine
The Mnemonic to Remember the Cranial Nerves by On Old Olympus' Towering Top, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops.
The Cranial Nerves in Order and Their Primary Function Olfactory (smell), Optic (Vision), Oculomotor and trochlear(eye mvmnt),Trigeminal (face; jaw), abducens (eye mvmnt), Facial (tongue, face), acoustic (hearing; balance), glossopharyngeal (tongue; phraynx, vagus-larynx, respiratory, cardiac, gastroint)
What does the autonomic nervous system control? controls and regulates internal environment of our bodies such as heartbeat. Divided into sympathetic (fight or flight, raises blood pressure, increased heart rate and blood flow) and parasympathetic (brings body back to relaxation)
What belongs to the Central nervous system? spinal cord, brain
What belongs to the Peripheral nervous system? cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system
Three parts of brainstem from inferior to superior and function Medulla- breathing, heart rate Pons-motor control, sensory analysis Midbrain- hearing, body mvmnt
Which part of the brainstem is very important to speech? Medulla- bc it contains descending fibers that transmit motor info to several CN nuclei (IX glossopharyngeal, X vagus, XII hypoglossal)
What are the nerve fibers within the medulla that carry commands from the motor center of the brain to various muscles? pyramidal tracts-includes speech movements. At level of medulla, many of the pyramidal tracts from Left side of brain decussate to other side and control mvmnt on right side of brain
Diencephalon contains third ventricle, thalamus (sensory info and motor), and hypothalamus (integrate actions of ANS and controls emotions)
Basal Ganglia Receive input from frontal lobe and relay info back to higher centers of brain via thalamus. Modifies motor mvmnts including speech. Lesions here can result in dysarthria and interfere with voluntary attempt to speak or walk.
Damage to cerebellum results in what? Ataxia: ataxic dysarthria
Frontal Lobe Function and 3 Areas it Contains Formation of plans, organized activity. Contains primary motor cortex (motor strip), supplementary motor cortex, and Broca's Area
Primary motor cortex (motor strip) located on precentral gyrus, controls voluntary movements of skeletal uscles on the opposite side of the body including muscles for speech production
Supplementary Motor Cortex motor planning of speech
Broca's Area in 3rd convolution of the left cerebral hemisphere, anterior to the portion of the primary motor cortex that controls lip, tongue, jaw, and larynx. It controls motor movements involved in speech. Well-articulated, fluent speech made here.
Parietal Lobe Areas Related to Speech Supramarginal gyrus- damage causes conduction aphasia and agraphia. Angular gyrus- damage causes writing, reading, and naming difficulties and in some cases transcortical sensory aphasia
Occipital Lobe Function Vision
Temporal Lobe Areas and Function Primary Auditory Cortex (on superior temporal gyrus)-receives sound stimuli from acoustic nerve and sends to aud. ass. area Auditory Association Area (posterior to primary auditory cortex)-in L, analyzes speech sounds to recognize words and sentences
Wernicke's Area in temporal lobe (posterior 2/3 of superior temporal gyrus in L. Comprehension of spoken and written language and connected to Broca's. If lesion, patient produces fluent but meaningless speech and experiences significant language comp. problems.
What is the biggest branch of the internal carotid artery and what does it supply blood to? Middle Cerebral Artery- entire lateral surface of the cortex including major regions of the frontal and temporal lobe involving motor and sensory functions and language, speech, and hearing functions.
Most pharyngeal muscles are innervated by Cranial nerves what and what? X, XI
Left Middle Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to the language zone. Also known as the artery of aphasia.
Created by: rschollmeier



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