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Genetics

TermDefinition
heredity passing on of traits from an organism to its offspring
chromosomes hold the genes that pass on the traits, Homo sapiens have 46
genes basic units of heredity- called genotype- represented by letters. Also called alleles
trait- or - phenotype the characteristic the genes gave you
probability the likelihood that an event will occur- percent out of 100% Use a punnett square to figure the percentage.
karyotype a picture of your chromosomes all lined up from the smallest to the largest size and the last pair are your sex chromosomes
Nitrogen bases or nucleotides in DNA Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, A-T, C-G
Replication when the DNA forms a twin of itself as it unzips and new nitrogen bases attach to the existing nitrogen base of A, T, C, G
Purebred-Homozygous the alleles, (strength of the gene), are the same, example= BB or bb
Hybrid-Heterozygous the alleles are different, example= Bb
Dominant stronger trait in genetics, will 'hide' or 'mask' a recessive trait
Recessive weaker trait in genetics
Incomplete dominance genes for the same trait that are different but equal in strength, example= RW, rq, the result phenotype will be a blend of the two.
Mitosis in asexual reproduction, when a cell duplicates its nuclei, and both nuclei have exactly the same information.
meiosis when a cell produces a sex cell which has only Half the information as the parent cell.
Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics- Austrian monk who grew pea plants and discovered dominant and recessive traits.
Punnett Square A chart showing possible gene combinations in a cross between two organisms genes. Use it to figure the probability of the babies traits.
Mutation A change in a gene or chromosome. Can happen naturally or from exposure to toxic matter.
Double Helix Shape of the DNA
James Watson and Francis Crick Won a Nobel Peace Prize for discovering the shape of DNA
Rosalind Franklin Used X-Ray diffraction to take a 'picture' of DNA
Nucleotide Has 3 parts: Phosphate, Deoxyribose,(sugar), Nucleic Base of either a A, T, C , G
sex cells made by meiosis sperm and eggs
clone any organism whose genetic information is identical to that of a parent organism from which it was created
Created by: bdepalo